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Journal of Materials
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 802467, 6 pages
Review Article

From Garbage to Biomaterials: An Overview on Egg Shell Based Hydroxyapatite

1Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, P.M.B. 2339, Kaduna, Nigeria
2Faculty of Bioscience & Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
3Department of Biological Sciences, Bauchi State University Gadau, P.M.B. 065, Bauchi, Nigeria
4Department of Biological Sciences, Gombe State University, P.M.B. 0127, Gombe, Nigeria
5Department of Biochemistry, Bauchi State University Gadau, P.M.B. 065, Bauchi, Nigeria
6Department of Microbiology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai, P.M.B. 011, Niger, Nigeria

Received 26 March 2014; Revised 14 July 2014; Accepted 14 July 2014; Published 25 August 2014

Academic Editor: Roger Narayan

Copyright © 2014 Idris Abdulrahman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The conversion of waste obtained from agricultural processes into biocompatible materials (biomaterials) used in medical surgery is a strategy that will add more value in waste utilization. This strategy has successfully turned the rather untransformed wastes into high value products. Eggshell is an agricultural waste largely considered as useless and is discarded mostly because it contributes to pollution. This waste has potential for producing hydroxyapatite, a major component found in bone and teeth. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent material used in bone repair and tissue regeneration. The use of eggshell to generate hydroxyapatite will reduce the pollution effect of the waste and the subsequent conversion of the waste into a highly valuable product. In this paper, we reviewed the utilization of this agricultural waste (eggshell) in producing hydroxyapatite. The process of transforming eggshell into hydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite is an environmentally friendly process. Eggshell based hydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite stand as good chance of reducing the cost of treatment in bone repair or replacement with little impact on the environment.