Table of Contents
Journal of Medical Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 139535, 7 pages
Research Article

A Simple and Inexpensive Stereotactic Guidance Frame for MRI-Guided Brain Biopsy in Canines

1College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA

Received 9 December 2013; Revised 10 April 2014; Accepted 13 April 2014; Published 18 May 2014

Academic Editor: Olivier Beuf

Copyright © 2014 Alexander D. Squires et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided stereotactic system was developed to provide veterinarians a method to accomplish minimally invasive stereotactic brain biopsies and procedures involving the cerebrum in canines. While MR-guided procedures are prevalent for humans, they are less common in animal practices. The system was designed to minimize fabrication costs in an effort to make such procedures more accessible in the veterinary field. A frame constrained the head without the need for punctures and supported registration and guidance attachments. Location data for registration and relevant structures were selected by the clinician, and a reverse kinematic analysis program generated the settings of the stereotactic arch to guide a needle to the desired location. Phantom experiments and three cadaver trials showed an average targeting error of <3 mm using the system.