Table of Contents
Journal of Medical Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 381251, 28 pages
Review Article

Bioelectrical Impedance Methods for Noninvasive Health Monitoring: A Review

Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120749, Republic of Korea

Received 31 August 2013; Revised 26 November 2013; Accepted 26 November 2013; Published 17 June 2014

Academic Editor: Norio Iriguchi

Copyright © 2014 Tushar Kanti Bera. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Under the alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex electrical impedance which depends on tissue composition, structures, health status, and applied signal frequency, and hence the bioelectrical impedance methods can be utilized for noninvasive tissue characterization. As the impedance responses of these tissue parameters vary with frequencies of the applied signal, the impedance analysis conducted over a wide frequency band provides more information about the tissue interiors which help us to better understand the biological tissues anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Over past few decades, a number of impedance based noninvasive tissue characterization techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical impedance plethysmography (IPG), impedance cardiography (ICG), and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) have been proposed and a lot of research works have been conducted on these methods for noninvasive tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. In this paper BIA, EIS, IPG, ICG, and EIT techniques and their applications in different fields have been reviewed and technical perspective of these impedance methods has been presented. The working principles, applications, merits, and demerits of these methods has been discussed in detail along with their other technical issues followed by present status and future trends.