Table of Contents
Journal of Mining
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 290275, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/290275
Review Article

Biochemical Engineering Parameters for Hydrometallurgical Processes: Steps towards a Deeper Understanding

K. Kundu1,2 and A. Kumar1,3

1Department of Biochemical Engineering, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208002, India
2Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India
3BIOMATH, Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, Belgium

Received 10 November 2013; Revised 10 March 2014; Accepted 26 March 2014; Published 27 April 2014

Academic Editor: Luigi Toro

Copyright © 2014 K. Kundu and A. Kumar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Schippers, S. Hedrich, J. Vasters, M. Drobe, W. Sand, and S. Willscher, “Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms,” in Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, pp. 1–47, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. S. Gahan, H. Srichandan, D. J. Kim, and A. Akcil, “Biohydrometallurgy and biomineral processing technology: a review on its past, present and future,” Research Journal of Recent Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 85–99, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. C. L. Brierley, “Biohydrometallurgical prospects,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 104, no. 3-4, pp. 324–328, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Boon, Theoretical and experimental methods in the modelling of bio-oxidation kinetics of sulphide minerals [Ph.D. thesis], Delft University of Technology, 1996.
  5. M. J. Nicol and I. Lázaro, “The role of EH measurements in the interpretation of the kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation and leaching of sulphide minerals,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. M. Lizama, M. J. Fairweather, Z. Dai, and T. D. Allegretto, “How does bioleaching start?” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 69, no. 1–3, pp. 109–116, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Gonzalez-Contreras, J. Weijma, and C. J. N. Buisman, “Kinetics of ferrous iron oxidation by batch and continuous cultures of thermoacidophilic Archaea at extremely low pH of 1.1–1.3,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 1295–1303, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Acevedo, “The use of reactors in biomining processes,” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 184–194, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. E. Rawlings, Biomining: Theory, Microbes and Industrial Processes, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1997.
  10. D. E. Rawlings, “Heavy metal mining using microbes,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 56, pp. 65–91, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. R. Hutchins, M. S. Davidson, J. A. Brierley, and C. L. Brierley, “Microorganisms in reclamation of metals,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 40, pp. 311–336, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Sand, T. Gerke, R. Hallmann, and A. Schippers, “Sulfur chemistry, biofilm, and the (in)direct attack: a critical evaluation of bacterial leaching,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 961–966, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Acevedo and J. C. Gentina, “Bioreactor design fundamentals and their application to gold mining,” in Microbial Processing of Metal Sulfides, pp. 151–168, Springer, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  14. A. Schippers and W. Sand, “Bacterial leaching of metal sulfides proceeds by two indirect mechanisms via thiosulfate or via polysulfides and sulfur,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 319–321, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. H. Byrne and Y. Luo, “Direct observations of nonintegral hydrous ferric oxide solubility products,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1873–1877, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. E. Rawlings, H. Tributsch, and G. S. Hansford, “Reasons why “Leptospirillum”-like species rather than Thiobacillus ferrooxidans are the dominant iron-oxidizing bacteria in many commercial processes for the biooxidation of pyrite and related ores,” Microbiology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 5–13, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. S. Liu, R. M. R. Branion, and D. W. Duncan, “The effects of ferrous iron, dissolved oxygen, and inert solids concentrations on the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans,” The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 445–451, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1972.
  19. J. Petersen and D. Dixon, “Modeling and optimization of heap bioleach processes,” in Biomining, D. Rawlings and D. B. Johnson, Eds., pp. 153–176, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  20. K. A. Third, R. Cord-Ruwisch, and H. R. Watling, “Control of the redox potential by oxygen limitation improves bacterial leaching of chalcopyrite,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 433–441, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. B. Hallberg, E. González-Toril, and D. B. Johnson, “Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, sp. nov.; facultatively anaerobic, psychrotolerant iron-, and sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles isolated from metal mine-impacted environments,” Extremophiles, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 9–19, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Petersen, S. H. Minnaar, and C. A. du Plessis, “Carbon dioxide and oxygen consumption during the bioleaching of a copper ore in a large isothermal column,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 104, no. 3-4, pp. 356–362, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. H. de Kock, P. Barnard, and C. A. du Plessis, “Oxygen and carbon dioxide kinetic challenges for thermophilic mineral bioleaching processes,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 273–275, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Bosecker, “Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 20, no. 3-4, pp. 591–604, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Kim, D. Pradhan, K. Park, J. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Effect of pH and temperature on iron oxidation by mesophilic mixed iron oxidizing microflora,” Materials Transactions, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 2389–2393, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. C. van Aswegen, J. van Niekerk, and W. Olivier, “The BIOX process for the treatment of refractory gold concentrates,” in Biomining, pp. 1–33, Springer, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  27. C. Brierley and A. Briggs, “Selection and sizing of biooxidation equipment and circuits,” in Mineral Processing Plant Design, Practice and Control, pp. 1540–1568, Society of Mining Engineers, Littleton, Colo, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. A. du Plessis, J. D. Batty, and D. W. Dew, “Commercial applications of thermophile bioleaching,” in Biomining, pp. 57–80, Springer, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  29. J. Sundkvist, C. S. Gahan, and Å. Sandström, “Modeling of ferrous iron oxidation by a Leptospirillum ferrooxidans-dominated chemostat culture,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 378–389, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. R. Norris, J. C. Murrell, and D. Hinson, “The potential for diazotrophy in iron- and sulfur-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 294–300, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. E. Rawlings and D. B. Johnson, “The microbiology of biomining: development and optimization of mineral-oxidizing microbial consortia,” Microbiology, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 315–324, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. Deveci, A. Akcil, and I. Alp, “Bioleaching of complex zinc sulphides using mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria: comparative importance of pH and iron,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 73, no. 3-4, pp. 293–303, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. S. Gahan, M. L. Cunha, and Å. Sandström, “Comparative study on different steel slags as neutralising agent in bioleaching,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 95, no. 3-4, pp. 190–197, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. E. Rawlings, “Microbially assisted dissolution of minerals and its use in the mining industry,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 847–859, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. W. Dew, E. N. Lawson, and J. L. Broadhurst, “The BIOX process for biooxidation of gold-bearing ores or concentrates,” in Biomining, pp. 45–80, Springer, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  36. F. Bouquet and D. Morin, “BROGIM: a new three-phase mixing system testwork and scale-up,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 83, no. 1–4, pp. 97–105, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. Hadjiev, N. E. Sabiri, and A. Zanati, “Mixing time in bioreactors under aerated conditions,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 323–330, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. W. Norwood and A. Metzner, “Flow patterns and mixing rates in agitated vessels,” AIChE Journal, vol. 6, pp. 432–437, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  39. S. Aiba, A. E. Humphrey, and N. F. Millis, Biochemical Engineering, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, Japan, 1965.
  40. T. V. Ojumu, J. Petersen, and G. S. Hansford, “The effect of dissolved cations on microbial ferrous-iron oxidation by Leptospirillum ferriphilum in continuous culture,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 94, no. 1–4, pp. 69–76, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Valenzuela, A. Chi, S. Beard et al., “Genomics, metagenomics and proteomics in biomining microorganisms,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 197–211, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Rohwerder, T. Gehrke, K. Kinzler, and W. Sand, “Bioleaching review, part A: progress in bioleaching: fundamentals and mechanisms of bacterial metal sulfide oxidation,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 239–248, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. R. Norris, N. P. Burton, and N. A. M. Foulis, “Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing,” Extremophiles, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 71–76, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. Zeng, G. Qiu, H. Zhou et al., “Community structure and dynamics of the free and attached microorganisms during moderately thermophilic bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 18, pp. 7068–7075, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. Xia, C. Yin, S. Dai, G. Qiu, X. Chen, and J. Liu, “Bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate using Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in a continuous bubble column reactor,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 289–295, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. G. Bryan, C. Joulian, P. Spolaore et al., “The efficiency of indigenous and designed consortia in bioleaching stirred tank reactors,” Minerals Engineering, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1149–1156, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus