Table of Contents
Journal of Mycology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 361053, 7 pages
Research Article

Mushrooms and Lichens in Bulgarian Ethnomycology

Department of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 8 Boulevard Dragan Tsankov, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria

Received 31 August 2015; Accepted 19 October 2015

Academic Editor: Leo Van Griensven

Copyright © 2015 Blagoy Angelov Uzunov and Maya Petrova Stoyneva-Gärtner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. U. Charaya and R. S. Mehrotra, “From ethnomycology to fungal biotechnology: a historical perspective,” in From Ethnomycology to Fungal Biotechnology: Exploiting Fungi from Natural Resources for Novel Products, J. Singh and K. R. Aneja, Eds., pp. 1–10, Springer, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  2. V. P. Wasson and R. G. Wasson, Mushrooms, Russia and History, Volumes 1 and 2, Pantheon, New York, NY, USA, 1957.
  3. R. Heim, R. Cailleux, R. G. Wasson, and P. Thevenard, Nouvelle Investigations sur les Champignons Hallucinogenes, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, 1967.
  4. R. G. Wasson, Soma, Divine Mushroom of Immortality, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, NY, USA, 1968.
  5. R. G. Wasson, The Wondrous Mushroom: Mycolatry in Mesoamerica, McGraw-Hill, 1980.
  6. G. Guzmán, “New species and new records of Psilocybe from Spain, the U.S.A. and Mexico, and a new case of poisoning by P. barrerae,” Documents Mycologiques, vol. 29, no. 116, pp. 41–52, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  7. G. Samorini, Funghi allucinogeni. Studi etnomicologici, Telesterion, Dozza, Italy, 2001.
  8. G. Guzmán and M. L. Castro, “Observations on some known species of Psilocybe from Spain and description of a new species,” Boletín de la Sociedad Micológica de Madrid, vol. 27, pp. 181–187, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  9. E. Boa, “Wild edible fungi. A global overview of their use and importance to people,” Non-Wood Forest Products 17, FAO, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  10. R. Fernández-Sasia, “Psilocybe hispanica Guzmán, un taxon novedoso en nuestro entorno,” Revista Micológica “Errotari”, vol. 3, pp. 73–76, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. Guzmán, “The hallucinogenic mushrooms: diversity, traditions, use and abuse with special reference to the genus Psilocybe,” in Fungi from Different Environments, J. K. Misra and S. K. Deshhmukh, Eds., pp. 256–277, Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  12. G. Zsigmond, Gomba és Hagyomány. Etnomikológiai Tanulmányok, LKG, Pont Kiadó, Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania, 2009.
  13. B. P. Akers, J. F. Ruiz, A. Piper, and C. A. P. Ruck, “A prehistoric mural in Spain depicting neurotropic Psilocybe mushrooms?” Economic Botany, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 121–128, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  14. I. Svanberg, Ł. Łuczaj, M. Pardo de-Santayana, and A. Pieroni, “History and current trends of ethnobiological research in Europe,” in Ethnobiology, E. N. Anderson, D. Pearsall, E. Hunn, and N. Turner, Eds., chapter 12, pp. 189–212, John Wiley & Sons, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  15. G. Guzmán, “New taxonomical and ethnomycological observations on Psilocybe s.s. (Fungi, Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetidae, Agaricales, Strophariaceae) from Mexico, Africa and Spain,” Acta Botanica Mexicana, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 79–106, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Ivanova and D. Ivanov, “Ethnobotanical use of lichens: lichens for food review,” Scripta Scientifica Medica, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. P. Stoyneva-Gärtner and B. A. Uzunov, “An ethno biological glance on globalization impact on the traditional use of Algae and Fungi as food in Bulgaria,” Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, vol. 5, article 413, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. P. Dimkov, Guide to Natural Healing and Living, vol. 1–3, Publishing House Fakel, 4th edition, 1939.
  19. P. Dimkov, Bulgarian Folk Medicine. Naturopathy and Natural Life, vol. 1, Publishing House of Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1977.
  20. P. Dimkov, Bulgarian Folk Medicine. Naturopathy and Natural Life, vol. 2, Publishing House of Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1978.
  21. P. Dimkov, Bulgarian Folk Medicine. Naturopathy and Natural Life, vol. 3, Publishing House of Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1979.
  22. N. Stoyanov, Guide for Herb-Gathering, Publishing House Zemizdat, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1966.
  23. I. I. Ivanov, I. I. Landzhev, and G. K. Neshev, The Herbs in Bulgaria and Their Use, Publishing House Zemizdat, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1971.
  27. G. Georgiev, Мedicinal Mushrooms against Cancer and Other Diseases, Publishing House Doktor Natura, 2010.
  28. V. Guerassimova and T. Stoytchev, Scenes Ithyphalliques Rituelles dans la Peinture Monochrome des Grottes sur les Terres Bulgares, vol. 8, Annuaire du Musee National Archeologique, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 1992.
  29. T. Stoytchev and V. Gerassimova, “Bronze-age regional calendars in monochrome cave paintings in Bulgaria,” Annuary of Department of Archaeology—NBU, vol. 1, pp. 8–22, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  30. S. Draganov and M. Stoyneva, “The attention of Ministry of the Environment. Proposal for announcement of protection of some species algae, fungi and lichens,” Ecology, Biology and Biotechnology (Sofia, Bulgaria), vol. 4, pp. 62–64, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  31. R. Daskalov, Drugs, Publishing House Mishlena, 2006.
  32. V. Moncheva, “The season of magic mushrooms. Hallucinogens—3-cm temptation 17 of the mountain,” 2006, Article No 94116,
  33. I. Bakalov, “Sofia residents graze ‘magic mushrooms’ in the meadows above Govedartsi,” 2010,
  34. G. Kamenova, Ancient Curative Recipes. Remedies from Centuries. Reliable Recipes from Generations of Bulgarians, Publishing House Bard, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2015.
  36. W. Wirth, M. Hauck, and M. Schultz, Die Flechten Deutschlands: Band 1 und Band 2, Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany, 2013.
  39. E. Brande, “Mr. E. Brande, on a poisonous species of Agaric,” The Medical and Physical Journal: Containing the Earliest Information on Subjects of Medicine, Surgery, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Natural History, vol. 3, pp. 41–44, 1799. View at Google Scholar
  40. G. Guzmán, “A successful coincidence: the hallucinogenic mushrooms, the genus Psilocybe, the traditions and the development of mycology in Mexico,” in Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, J. E. Sánchez, M. G. Nieto, F. J. Márquez et al., Eds., pp. 9–14, UAEM, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  41. F. Bernardino de Sahagún, Historia General de las Cosas de La Nueva España, vol. 2, Alfa, Mexico City, Mexico, 1955.
  42. F. Bernardino de Sahagún, Códice Florentino de la obra Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva España, Facsimly Copy, Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico City, Mexico, 1979.
  43. R. E. Schultes, “The identifications of teonanácatl, a narcotic basidiomycete of the Aztecs,” Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, vol. 7, pp. 37–55, 1939. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Heim, “Les champignons divinatoires utilisés dans les rites des Indies Mazatèques, recueillis au cours de leur premier voyage au Mexique, en 1953, par Mme Valentina Pavlovna Wasson et M. R. Gordon Wasson,” Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 242, pp. 965–968, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  45. R. G. Wasson, “Seeking the magic mushroom,” Life Magazine, New York, vol. 49, no. 19, pp. 100–120, 1957. View at Google Scholar
  46. G. Guzmán, “Hallucinogenic mushrooms in Mexico: an overview,” Economic Botany, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 404–412, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. Kuhn, S. Swartzwelder, and W. Wilson, Buzzed: The Straight Facts about the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy, W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
  48. G. Samorini, “The oldest representations of hallucinogenic mushrooms in the world (Sahara Desert, 9000-7000 B.P.),” Integration, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 69–78, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  49. M. Merlini and A. Velichkov, Eds., Routes and Itineraries from the Virtual Museum of the European Roots, F-MU.S.EU.M. Project, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2009.
  50. A. Arcá, “Magura Cave paintings, Bulgarian rock art,” TRACCE Online Rock Art Bulletin 33, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  51. K. Kirilov, Dedication in Magura, Publishing House Izdavam, 2013.
  52. J. A. Ammirati, J. A. Traquair, and P. A. Horgen, Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 1985.
  53. D. G. Spoerke and B. H. Rumack, Eds., Handbook of Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment, CRC Press, 1994.
  54. M. Drumeva-Dimcheva, G. Stoychev, and M. Gyosheva, 50 Fungi for Mushroom Lover. Book 2, Publishing House Gea Libris, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1998.
  55. H. Nyberg, “Religious use of hallucinogenic fungi: a comparison between Siberian and Mesoamerican cultures,” Karstenia, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 71–80, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  56. J. Karadzhov, The Drugs, Publishing House Dilok, 2003.
  57. J. Brough, “Soma and Amanita muscaria,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 331–362, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. P. T. Furst, Hallucinogens and Culture, Chandler & Sharp, 1976.
  59. C. M. Denchev and B. Assyov, “Checklist of the larger basidiomycetes in Bulgaria,” Mycotaxon, vol. 111, pp. 279–282, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. Stamets, Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World: An Identification Guide, Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1996.
  61. P. P. Wieczorek, D. Witkowska, I. Jasicka-Misiak, A. Poliwoda, M. Oterman, and K. Zielińska, “Bioactive alkaloids of hallucinogenic mushrooms,” in Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Atta-ur-Rahman, Ed., vol. 46, chapter 5, pp. 133–168, Elsevier, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. A. Popnikolov and B. Zhelezova, Flora of Bulgaria. Lichens, Publishing House Narodna Prosveta, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1964.
  63. Y. Motika and B. Zhelezova, “Monographic study of the genus Usnea in Bulgaria,” Bulletin de L'Institut Botanique, vol. 10, pp. 67–120, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  64. O. Gilbert, Lichens, Harper Collins, London, UK, 2000.