Table 3: A listing of RNA aptamers reported in the open literature* (up until July 2012) that have been confirmed to bind to small molecule targets. The dissociation constant ( ), a measure of binding affinity, is included as well as the year of aptamer development.

TargetBinding affinity ( )YearReference

Organic dyes100–600 μM1990[158]
D-tryptophan18 μM1992[46]
L-valine2.9 mM1994[159]
Theophylline100 nM1994[44]
Cyanocobalamin88 nM1994[160]
L-citrulline62–68 μM1994[47]
Flavin mononucleotide 0.5 μM1994[161]
Flavin adenine dinucleotide137–273 μM1994[161]
Kanamycin A≤300 nM1995[162]
Neomycin100 nM1995[163]
Tobramycin2–3 nM1995[164]
Lividomycin≤300 nM1995[162]
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide2.5 μM1995[165]
Riboflavin1–5 μM1995[165]
Biotin5 μM1995[166]
L-arginine330 nM1996[48]
Dopamine2.8 μM1997[167]
7-methyl-guanosine5 μM1997[168]
CCdApPuro10 nM1997[169]
Chloramphenicol25–65 μM1997[170]
Viomycin11–21 μM1997[171]
Sulforhodamine B310 nM1998[172]
Streptomycin1–10 μM1998[173]
L-isoleucine200–500 μM1998[174]
7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)0.27–2.8 μM1998[134]
Xanthine3.3 μM1998[175]
Guanine1.3 μM1998[175]
Malachite green≤1 μM1999[176]
Phosphatidylcholine≥100 μM1999[177]
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 10 μM2000[178]
Adenosine triphosphate127–223 μM2000[179]
L-tyrosine35 μM2000[180]
S-adenosyl homocysteine0.2–0.8 μM2000[181]
Neomycin1.8 μM2000[182]
Moenomycin A300–400 nM2001[183]
Sialyl Lewis X0.085–10 nM2001[184]
Tetracycline1 μM2001[185]
Kanamycin B180 nM2001[186]
Adenine10 μM2002[187]
Flavin adenine dinucleotide50 μM2002[188]
L-isoleucine1–7 mM2003[189]
Adenosine triphosphate2 μM2003[190]
Morpholine-based GTP analog20, 33 μM2003[191]
4,4′-methylenedianiline0.45–15 μM2004[192]
Tobramycin30–100 nM2004[34]
Kanamycin10–30 nM2004[34]
Adenosine triphosphate5 μM2004[193]
Isoleucine0.9 mM2005[194]
L-histidine8–54 μM2005[195]
Codeine2.5–4 μM2006[33]
Mesomesoprotoporphyrin IX188–445 nM2006[87]
Thyroxine50 μM2007[196]
Tobramycin16 μM2007[197]
10-carboxy-2,7-di-t-butyl-trans-12c,12d-dimethyl-12c,12d-dihydrobenzo[e]pyrene2.7 μM2007[198]
Dimethylindole red87 nM2008[199]
Cyanine 3 dye60 μM2010[200]
Aniline-substituted sulforhodamine analogue3.5 μM2010[201]
Atrazine2 μM2010[202]
Sphingosylphosphorylcholine20–250 nM2010[203]
Black hole quencher4.7 μM2011[204]
4-dimethylaminobenzylidene imidazolinone464 nM2011[205]
Glutathione 41.8, 48.9 nM2011[206]
Heteroaryldihydropyrimidine50 nM2011[207]

Only aptamer sequences that have experimentally determined values were included in this table.