Table of Contents
Journal of Nuclear Chemistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 725629, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/725629
Research Article

Determination of Effective Atomic Numbers Using Different Methods for Some Low-Z Materials

1Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnatak 580003, India
2Health Physics Section, Kaiga Atomic Power Station 3 and 4, NPCIL, Karwar 581400, India
3Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey

Received 18 April 2014; Revised 4 July 2014; Accepted 9 July 2014; Published 7 August 2014

Academic Editor: Hasan Mahmood Khan

Copyright © 2014 Vishwanath P. Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the present work, different methods were used to determine the effective atomic numbers of some low-Z materials, namely, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), Perspex (PX), polycarbonate (PC), nylon 6-6 (PA-6), plaster of Paris (POP), and TH/L2. These methods are the direct method, the interpolation method, Auto- software, and single value XMuDat computer program. Some of the results obtained were compared with experimental data wherever possible. It can be concluded from this work that the effective atomic numbers calculated with the direct, the interpolation and Auto- methods demonstrate a good agreement in Compton scattering and pair production energy regions. A large difference in the effective atomic numbers calculated by the direct and the interpolation methods of low-Z materials was also observed in photoelectric and pair production regions. It was determined that PE, PS, PX, and PA-6 were equivalent to adipose and muscle; POP was equivalent to cortical bone; TH/L2 was equivalent to thyroid tissue; PP was equivalent to yellow bone marrow and adipose tissues; PC was equivalent to spongiosa.