Figure 3: Motor function analysis in open field test (OFT) for Cd2+ and nicotine toxicity. Bar chart (acute phase) representing the frequency of lines crossed in OFT for the treatment groups and control after the acute (D1–D7) and chronic treatment phases (D7–D21). No significant change in motor function was observed between the treatment groups and control after the acute phase. However, after the chronic phase, the cadmium () treated group showed a decline in motor function while the nicotine treatment showed an increase in exploratory motor function when compared with the control (). Similarly, the nicotine-cadmium treatment recorded a significant increase in motor function when compared with the cadmium treatment group () and control.