Table of Contents
Journal of Nanoscience
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 401710, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/401710
Research Article

Structural, Nanomechanical, and Field Emission Properties of Amorphous Carbon Films Having Embedded Nanocrystallites Deposited by Filtered Anodic Jet Carbon Arc Technique

Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012, India

Received 23 April 2013; Revised 18 July 2013; Accepted 22 July 2013

Academic Editor: Andreas Zeinert

Copyright © 2013 R. K. Tripathi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Robertson, “Diamond-like amorphous carbon,” Materials Science and Engineering R, vol. 37, no. 4–6, pp. 129–281, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. R. P. Silva, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and C. P. Constantinou, “Optical properties of amorphous C/diamond thin films,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 1149–1153, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Robertson, “Plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 50, Article ID 01AF01, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. S. da Silva, A. D. S. Côrtes, M. H. Oliveira Jr. et al., “Application of amorphous carbon based materials as antireflective coatings on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 110, no. 4, Article ID 043510, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Umeno and S. Adhikary, “Diamond-like carbon thin films by microwave surface-wave plasma CVD aimed for the application of photovoltaic solar cells,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 14, no. 11-12, pp. 1973–1979, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. S. Choi, K. Kim, J. Yi, and B. Hong, “Diamond-like carbon protective anti-reflection coating for Si solar cell,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 4-5, pp. 577–580, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. S. K. Das, M. Patel, and A. J. Bhattacharyya, “Effect of nanostructuring and ex situ amorphous carbon coverage on the lithium storage and insertion kinetics in anatase titania,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 2091–2099, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. S. Salvatori, G. Mazzeo, G. Conte, M. C. Rossi, and V. Ralchenko, “Polycrystalline diamond position sensitive detector for excimer laser UV radiation,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 13, no. 4–8, pp. 948–953, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. S. Xu and S. E. Huq, “Novel cold cathode materials and applications,” Materials Science and Engineering R, vol. 48, no. 2–5, pp. 47–189, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. O. S. Panwar, N. L. Rupesinghe, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Field emission from as grown and nitrogen incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon/silicon heterojunctions grown using a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 566–575, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. X. Xiao, J. Partridge, M. Taylor, and D. McCulloch, “The stress and microstructure of a-C multilayers deposited using a filtered cathodic vacuum arc and periodic substrate bias,” Physica Status Solidi (C), vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 2179–2183, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. P. J. Fallon, V. S. Veerasamy, C. A. Davis et al., “Properties of filtered-ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon as a function of ion energy,” Physical Review B, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 4777–4782, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Rismani, S. K. Sinha, H. Yang, and C. S. Bhatia, “Effect of pretreatment of Si interlayer by energetic C+ ions on the improved nanotribological properties of magnetic head overcoat,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 111, no. 8, Article ID 084902, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. O. S. Panwar, M. A. Khan, M. Kumar et al., “Effect of high substrate bias and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporation on filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposited tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 8, pp. 2331–2340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. O. S. Panwar, M. A. Khan, G. Bhagavanarayana, P. N. Dixit, S. Kumar, and C. M. S. Rauthan, “Effect of hydrogen and nitrogen incorporation on the properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films grown using S bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc process,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 797–805, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Tian, X. Zhang, and Q. Z. Xue, “Enhanced room-temperature positive magnetoresistance of a-C:Fe film,” Carbon, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1764–1768, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Wan and K. Komvopoulos, “Tetrahedral and trigonal carbon atom hybridization in thin amorphous carbon films synthesized by radio-frequency sputtering,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 27, pp. 9891–9896, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. G. Gamaly and T. W. Ebbesen, “Mechanism of carbon nanotube formation in the arc discharge,” Physical Review B, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 2083–2089, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. A. J. Amaratunga, M. Chhowalla, C. J. Kiely, I. Alexandrou, R. Aharonov, and R. M. Devenish, “Hard elastic carbon thin films from linking of carbon nanoparticles,” Nature, vol. 383, no. 6598, pp. 321–223, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Chhowalla, R. A. Aharonov, C. J. Kiely, I. Alexandrou, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Generation and deposition of fullerene- and nanotube-rich carbon thin films,” Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 329–335, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. Alexandrou, H.-J. Scheibe, C. J. Kiely, A. J. Papworth, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and B. Schultrich, “Carbon films with an sp2 network structure,” Physical Review B, vol. 60, no. 15, pp. 10903–10907, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I. Alexandrou, M. Baxendale, N. L. Rupesinghe, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and C. J. Kiely, “Field emission properties of nanocomposite carbon nitride films,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 2698–2703, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. I. Alexandrou, C. J. Kiely, A. J. Papworth, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Formation and subsequent inclusion of fullerene-like nanoparticles in nanocomposite carbon thin films,” Carbon, vol. 42, no. 8-9, pp. 1651–1656, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. K. Chu and L. Li, “Characterization of amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 96, no. 2-3, pp. 253–277, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. C. Biswas and Y. H. Lee, “Graphene versus carbon nanotubes in electronic devices,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 3806–3826, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. D. Varshney, C. V. Rao, M. J.-F. Guinel, Y. Ishikawa, B. R. Weiner, and G. Morell, “Free standing graphene-diamond hybrid films and their electron emission properties,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 110, no. 4, Article ID 044324, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. P. Lungu, C. E. A. Grigorescu, M. I. Rusu et al., “Nanodiamond crystallites embedded in carbon films prepared by thermionic vacuum arc method,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1061–1064, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Ishpal, O. S. Panwar, A. K. Srivastava et al., “Effect of substrate bias in amorphous carbon films having embedded nanocrystallites,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 1, pp. 155–164, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, vol. 82, no. 553, pp. 172–175, 1909. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1564–1583, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. P. D. Ownby, X. Yang, and J. Liu, “Calculated X-ray diffraction data for diamond polytypes,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 1876–1883, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. S. Zhang and K. Komvopoulos, “Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 79, Article ID 073905, 7 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. Diaz, G. Paolielli, S. Ferrer, and F. Comin, “Separation of the sp3 and sp2 components in the C1s photoemission spectra of amorphous carbon films,” Physical Review B, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 8064–8069, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. G. G. Wang, H. Y. Zhang, H. F. Zhou et al., “Effect of ECR-assisted microwave plasma nitriding treatment on the microstructure characteristics of FCVA deposited ultra-thin ta-C films for high-density magnetic storage applications,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 10, pp. 3024–3030, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. R. McCann, S. S. Roy, P. Papakonstantinou, M. F. Bain, H. S. Gamble, and J. A. McLaughlin, “Chemical bonding modifications of tetrahedral amorphous carbon and nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films induced by rapid thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 482, no. 1-2, pp. 34–40, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Ishpal, O. S. Panwar, M. Kumar, and S. Kumar, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of nitrogen incorporated amorphous carbon films embedded with nanoparticles,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 24, pp. 7371–7376, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Wada, P. J. Gaczi, and S. A. Solin, “‘Diamond-like’ 3-fold coordinated amorphous carbon,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 35-36, no. 1, pp. 543–548, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. R. Salis, D. J. Gardiner, M. Bowden, J. Savage, and D. Rodway, “Monitoring the quality of diamond films using Raman spectra excited at 514.5 nm and 633 nm,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 5, no. 6–8, pp. 589–591, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Physical Review B, vol. 61, no. 20, pp. 14095–14107, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Neuville and A. Matthews, “A perspective on the optimisation of hard carbon and related coatings for engineering applications,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, no. 17, pp. 6619–6653, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Saha and W. D. Nix, “Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation,” Acta Materialia, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 23–38, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. X. Chen and J. J. Vlassak, “Numerical study on the measurement of thin film mechanical properties by means of nanoindentation,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2974–2982, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. B. Jönsson and S. Hogmark, “Hardness measurements of thin films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 257–269, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Capote, R. Piroli, P. M. Jardin, A. R. Zanatta, L. G. Jacobsohn, and F. L. Freirer Jr., “Amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited by PECVD: influence of the substrate temperature on film growth and microstructure,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 338–340, pp. 503–508, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. C. A. Charitidis, “Nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of carbon-based thin films: a review,” International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 51–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. Ishpal, O. S. Panwar, M. Kumar, and S. Kumar, “Effect of ambient gaseous environment on the properties of amorphous carbon thin films,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 558–567, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. D. Carey, “Engineering the next generation of large-area displays: prospects and pitfalls,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 361, no. 1813, pp. 2891–2907, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. R. H. Fowler and L. Nordheim, “Electron emission in intense electric fields,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, vol. 119, no. 781, pp. 173–181, 1928. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. B. S. Satyanarayana, A. Hart, W. I. Milne, and J. Robertson, “Field emission from tetrahedral amorphous carbon,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 1430–1432, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. O. S. Panwar, M. A. Khan, B. S. Satyanarayana et al., “Effect of high substrate bias and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporation on density of states and field-emission threshold in tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 411–422, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. D. Carey, R. D. Forrest, and S. R. P. Silva, “Origin of electric field enhancement in field emission from amorphous carbon thin films,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, no. 16, p. 2339, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. S. Talapatra, S. Kar, S. K. Pal et al., “Direct growth of aligned carbon nanotubes on bulk metals,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 112–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Shimada, K. Teii, and M. Nakashima, “Low threshold field emission from nitrogen-incorporated carbon nanowalls,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 19, no. 7–9, pp. 956–959, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus