Table of Contents
Journal of Oral Diseases
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 168584, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/168584
Review Article

Saliva: A Cutting Edge in Diagnostic Procedures

Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, No. 162 Poonamalle High Road, Velapanchavadi, Chennai 600077, India

Received 5 April 2014; Revised 8 May 2014; Accepted 12 May 2014; Published 26 May 2014

Academic Editor: Atsushi Saito

Copyright © 2014 Senthamil Sindhu and Nithya Jagannathan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. L. Chicharro, A. Lucía, M. Pérez, A. F. Vaquero, and R. Ureña, “Saliva composition and exercise,” Sports Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 17–27, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. D. Malamud, “Saliva as a diagnostic fluid,” Dental Clinics of North America, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 159–178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. G. Batsakis, “Salivary gland neoplasia: an outcome of modified morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 229–232, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. N. Rehak, S. A. Cecco, and G. Csako, “Biochemical composition and electrolyte balance of “unstimulated” whole human saliva,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 335–343, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  5. W. J. Jusko and R. L. Milsap, “Pharmacokinetic principles of drug distribution in saliva,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 694, pp. 36–47, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. H. Lee and D. T. Wong, “Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases,” American Journal of Dentistry, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 241–248, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. F. Streckfus and L. R. Bigler, “Saliva as a diagnostic fluid,” Oral Diseases, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 69–76, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  8. C. Silvia, A. Giorgia, G. Rosalba, F. Elio, and P. De, “Saliva specimen: a new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 383, no. 1-2, pp. 30–40, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Navazesh, “Methods for collecting saliva,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 694, pp. 72–77, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. G. Oberg, K. Izutsu, and E. L. Truelove, “Human parotid saliva protein composition: dependence on physiological factors,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 242, no. 3, pp. 231–236, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. K. Soong, G. D. Bachand, H. P. Neves, A. G. Olkhovets, H. G. Craighead, and C. D. Montemagno, “Powering an inorganic nanodevice with a biomolecular motor,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5496, pp. 1555–1558, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. S. George, “The effect of saliva on dental caries,” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 139, supplement 2, pp. 11S–17S, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. Seemann, S. J. Hagewald, V. Sztankay, J. Drews, M. Bizhang, and A. Kage, “Levels of parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary immunoglobulin A in response to experimental gingivitis in humans,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 233–237, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Groenink, A. J. Ligtenberg, E. C. Veerman, J. G. Bolscher, and A. V. Nieuw Amerongen, “Interaction of the salivary low-molecular-weight mucin (MG2) with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 79–87, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  15. R. A. Jalil, F. P. Ashley, and R. F. Wilson, “The relationship between 48-h dental plaque accumulation in young human adults and the concentrations of hypothiocyanite, “free” and “total” lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin a in saliva,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Groenink, E. Walgreen-Weterings, K. Nazmi et al., “Salivary lactoferrin and low-Mr mucin MG2 in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-associated periodontitis,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 269–275, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Gusman, J. Travis, E. J. Helmerhorst, J. Potempa, R. F. Troxler, and F. G. Oppenheim, “Salivary histatin 5 is an inhibitor of both host and bacterial enzymes implicated in periodontal disease,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 1402–1408, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Guven, I. Satman, N. Dinççaǧ, and S. Alptekin, “Salivary peroxidise activity in whole saliva of patients with insulindependent (type-1) diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 879–881, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Aditishrikrishnadhage and A. N. Savitha, “A salivary cystatin C-A dynamic biomarker of periodontal disease,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 57–64, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  20. B. P. Priti and R. P. Basgauda, “Saliva: a diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases,” Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 310–317, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Samaranayake, “Saliva as a diagnostic fluid,” International Dental Journal, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 295–299, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Chiappin, G. Antonelli, R. Gatti, and F. D. de Palo, “Saliva specimen: a new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigations,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 383, no. 1-2, pp. 30–40, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. H. Garde and A. M. Hansen, “Long-term stability of salivary cortisol,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 433–436, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. K. Fábián, P. Fejérdy, and P. Csemely, “Saliva in health and disease, chemical biology of,” in Wiley Encyclopaedia of Chemical Biology, pp. 1–9, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. A. R. Bull, K. J. Kimmance, J. V. Parry, and K. R. Perry, “Investigation of an outbreak of hepatitis A simplified by salivary antibody testing,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 371–376, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Gonzalez, J. A. Banderas, A. Baez, and R. Belmont, “Salivary lead and cadmium in young population residing in Mexico city,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 55–64, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M.-S. Kang, J.-S. Oh, H.-J. Kim et al., “Prevalence of oral microbes in the saliva of oncological patients,” Journal of Bacteriology and Virology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 277–285, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. D. L. Mager, A. D. Haffajee, P. M. Delvin, C. M. Norris, M. R. Posner, and J. M. Goodson, “The salivary microbiota as a diagnostic indicator of oral cancer: a descriptive, nonrandomized study of cancer-free and oral squamous cell carcinoma subjects,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 3, article 27, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Krogh, “The role of yeasts in oral cancer by means of endogenous nitrosation,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 85–88, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. H. Friedlander, I. K. Friedlander, and S. R. Marder, “Bipolar I disorder: psychopathology, medical management and dental implications,” Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 133, no. 9, pp. 1209–1217, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. M. C. Henskens, H. Strooker, P. A. M. van der Keijbus, E. C. I. Veerman, and A. V. Nieuw Amerogen, “Salivary protein composition in epileptic patients on different medications,” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 360–366, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  32. E. A. Shirtcliff and R. T. Marrocco, “Salivary cotinine levels in human tobacco smokers predict the attentional validity effect size during smoking abstinence,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. E. Sephton, R. M. Sapolsky, H. C. Kraemer, and D. Spiegel, “Diurnal cortisol rhythm as a predictor of breast cancer survival,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 994–1000, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. A. Tabak, “A revolution in biomedical assessment: the development of salivary diagnostics,” Journal of Dental Education, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1335–1339, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Yaari, D. Tovbin, M. Zlotnick et al., “Detection of HCV salivary antibodies by a simple and rapid test,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Kaufman and I. B. Lamster, “The diagnostic applications of saliva—a review,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 197–212, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. N. Jenkins, “Saliva,” in The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Mouth, pp. 284–359, 4th edition, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  38. P. K. Agarwal, K. N. Agarwal, and D. K. Agarwal, “Biochemical changes in saliva of malnourished children,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 181–184, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Nithya, C. Thiruvengadam, P. Ramani, P. Premkumar, A. Natesan, and H. J. Sherlin, “Salivary ferritin as a predictive marker of iron deficiency anemia in children,” Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. K. Fábián, Z. Tóth, L. Fejérdy, B. Kaán, P. Csermely, and P. Fejérdy, “Photo-acoustic stimulation increases the amount of 70kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) in human whole saliva. A pilot study,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 211–216, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. T. Zelles, K. R. Purushotham, S. P. Macauley, G. E. Oxford, and M. G. Humphreys-Beher, “Saliva and growth factors: the fountain of youth resides in us all,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 74, no. 12, pp. 1826–1832, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. S. V. Burgen and N. G. Emmelin, Physiology of the Salivary Glands, Edward Arnold, London, UK, 1961.
  43. L. Heflin, S. Walsh, and M. J. Bagajewicz, “Design of medical diagnostics products: a case-study of a saliva diagnostics kit,” Computers and Chemical Engineering, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1067–1076, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. N. Floriano, N. Christodoulides, C. S. Miller et al., “Use of saliva-based nano-biochip tests for acute myocardial infarction at the point of care: a feasibility study,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1530–1538, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. M. Nagler and A. Nagler, “The molecular basis of salivary gland involvement in graft-versus-host disease,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 98–103, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Denny, F. K. Hagen, M. Hardt et al., “The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1994–2006, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Hu, M. Arellano, P. Boontheung et al., “Salivary proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 19, pp. 6246–6252, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. E. Herr, A. V. Hatch, W. V. Giannobile et al., “Integrated microfluidic platform for oral diagnostics,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1098, pp. 362–374, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Kathariya and A. R. Pradeep, “Salivary proteomic biomarkers for oral diseases: a review of literature,” Archives of Oral Sciences & Research, vol. 1, pp. 43–49, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  50. C. Llena-Puy, “The rôle of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis,” Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. E449–E455, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus