Table of Contents
Journal of Oral Implants
Volume 2015, Article ID 527426, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/527426
Review Article

Composition and Modifications of Dental Implant Surfaces

1Department for Cranio-Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Maximilianstrasse 10, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2DiaCoating GmbH, Mitterweg 24, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria

Received 26 September 2014; Revised 17 December 2014; Accepted 18 December 2014

Academic Editor: Sven Rinke

Copyright © 2015 Michela Bruschi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Since Brånemark discovered the favorable effects of titanium in bone healing in 1965, titanium has emerged as the gold standard bulk material for present-time dental implantology. In the course of years researchers aimed for improvement of the implants performance in bone even at compromised implant sites and multiple factors were investigated influencing osseointegration. This review summarizes and clarifies the four factors that are currently recognized being relevant to influence the tissue-implant contact ratio: bulk materials and coatings, topography, surface energy, and biofunctionalization. The macrodesigns of bulk materials (e.g., titanium, zirconium, stainless steel, tantalum, and magnesium) provide the mechanical stability and their influence on bone cells can be additionally improved by surface treatment with various materials (calcium phosphates, strontium, bioglasses, diamond-like carbon, and diamond). Surface topography can be modified via different techniques to increase the bone-implant contact, for example, plasma-spraying, grit-blasting, acid-etching, and microarc oxidation. Surface energy (e.g., wettability and polarity) showed a strong effect on cell behavior and cell adhesion. Functionalization with bioactive molecules (via physisorption, covalent binding, or carrier systems) targets enhanced osseointegration. Despite the satisfying clinical results of presently used dental implant materials, further research on innovative implant surfaces is inevitable to pursuit perfection in soft and hard tissue performance.