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Journal of Optimization
Volume 2013, Article ID 921270, 10 pages
Research Article

Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Multiobjective Ant Colony Optimization and Singular Value Decomposition in Wavelet Domain

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laval University, Québec, QC, 1K 7P4, Canada

Received 6 February 2013; Revised 19 April 2013; Accepted 14 May 2013

Academic Editor: Peiping Shen

Copyright © 2013 Khaled Loukhaoukha. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We present a new optimal watermarking scheme based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) using multiobjective ant colony optimization (MOACO). A binary watermark is decomposed using a singular value decomposition. Then, the singular values are embedded in a detailed subband of host image. The trade-off between watermark transparency and robustness is controlled by multiple scaling factors (MSFs) instead of a single scaling factor (SSF). Determining the optimal values of the multiple scaling factors (MSFs) is a difficult problem. However, a multiobjective ant colony optimization is used to determine these values. Experimental results show much improved performances of the proposed scheme in terms of transparency and robustness compared to other watermarking schemes. Furthermore, it does not suffer from the problem of high probability of false positive detection of the watermarks.