Table 3: Performance comparison between the results obtained from the simulation alone and that from the simulation-based optimization approach by using different optimization algorithms (the best results are bolded).

Cycle Time (the improvement in % compared with the one without optimization)Workers’ Utilization (the improvement in % compared with the one without optimization)

Simulation without optimization6788.64 sec45.04%
Simulation-based optimization with SCMIA5763.86 sec (15.10%)65.46% (45.34%)
Simulation-based optimization with MISA5754.88 sec (15.23%)63.45% (40.87%)
Simulation-based optimization with NNIA5672.87 sec (16.44)62.00% (37.66%)
Simulation-based optimization with NSGA-II5680.23 sec (16.33%)62.90% (39.65%)
Simulation-based optimization with SPEA25948.53 sec (12.38%)67.10 (48.76)