Table 4: Spacing and error ratio values generated by the five algorithms (the best results are bolded).

SCMIAMISANNIANSGA-IISPEA2
Mean
(Standard Deviation)

Error Ratio (ER)0.71 (0.10)0.85 (0.16)0.78 (0.18)0.76 (0.14)0.74 (0.06)
Spacing ()38.74 (10.97)58.02 (55.82)49.23 (26.10)51.85 (17.58)39.32 (37.16)