Table of Contents
Journal of Petroleum Engineering
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 864981, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/864981
Review Article

Review of Sand Production Prediction Models

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2W2
2BP America Inc., Houston, TX 77079, USA

Received 31 August 2012; Revised 7 November 2012; Accepted 12 November 2012

Academic Editor: Jorge Ancheyta

Copyright © 2013 Hossein Rahmati et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sand production in oil and gas wells can occur if fluid flow exceeds a certain threshold governed by factors such as consistency of the reservoir rock, stress state and the type of completion used around the well. The amount of solids can be less than a few grams per cubic meter of reservoir fluid, posing only minor problems, or a substantial amount over a short period of time, resulting in erosion and in some cases filling and blocking of the wellbore. This paper provides a review of selected approaches and models that have been developed for sanding prediction. Most of these models are based on the continuum assumption, while a few have recently been developed based on discrete element model. Some models are only capable of assessing the conditions that lead to the onset of sanding, while others are capable of making volumetric predictions. Some models use analytical formulae, particularly those for estimating the onset of sanding while others use numerical models, particularly in calculating sanding rate. Although major improvements have been achieved in the past decade, sanding tools are still unable to predict the sand mass and the rate of sanding for all field problems in a reliable form.