Table of Contents
Journal of Petroleum Engineering
Volume 2015, Article ID 895786, 28 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/895786
Research Article

Analytical Modeling and Contradictions in Limestone Reservoirs: Breccias, Vugs, and Fractures

1Programa Doctoral, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central Lázaro Cárdenas Norte 152, 07730 City of Mexico, DF, Mexico
2Secretaría de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, 04515 City of Mexico, DF, Mexico

Received 24 September 2014; Revised 13 February 2015; Accepted 23 February 2015

Academic Editor: Lixin Cheng

Copyright © 2015 Nelson Barros-Galvis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Modeling of limestone reservoirs is traditionally developed applying tectonic fractures concepts or planar discontinuities and has been simulated dynamically without considering nonplanar discontinuities as sedimentary breccias, vugs, fault breccias, and impact breccias, assuming that all these nonplanar discontinuities are tectonic fractures, causing confusion and contradictions in reservoirs characterization. The differences in geometry and connectivity in each discontinuity affect fluid flow, generating the challenge to develop specific analytical models that describe quantitatively hydrodynamic behavior in breccias, vugs, and fractures, focusing on oil flow in limestone reservoirs. This paper demonstrates the differences between types of discontinuities that affect limestone reservoirs and recommends that all discontinuities should be included in simulation and static-dynamic characterization, because they impact fluid flow. To demonstrate these differences, different analytic models are developed. Findings of this work are based on observations of cores, outcrops, and tomography and are validated with field data. The explanations and mathematical modeling developed here could be used as diagnostic tools to predict fluid velocity and fluid flow in limestone reservoirs, improving the complex reservoirs static-dynamic characterization.