Table of Contents
Journal of Photonics
Volume 2014, Article ID 309350, 6 pages
Research Article

Graphene Embedded Modulator with Extremely Small Footprint and High Modulation Efficiency

Department of Information Science & Electronic Engineering, Radio Frequency & Nano-Electronic Research Centre, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Received 11 February 2014; Revised 8 May 2014; Accepted 8 May 2014; Published 28 May 2014

Academic Editor: Anatole Lupu

Copyright © 2014 Ran Hao and Jia-Min Jin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


By embedding graphene sheet in the silicon waveguide, the overall effective mode index displays unexpected symmetry and the electrorefraction effect has been significantly enhanced near the epsilon-near-zero point. An eight-layer graphene embedded Mach-Zehnder Modulator has been theoretically demonstrated with the advantage of ultracompact footprint (4 × 2 μm2), high modulation efficiency (1.316 V·μm), ultrafast modulation speed, and large extinction ratio. Our results may promote various on-chip active components, boosting the utilization of graphene in optical applications.