Table of Contents
Journal of Radiotherapy
Volume 2015, Article ID 682463, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Monte Carlo-Based Dose Calculation in Postprostatectomy Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

1North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour, NSW 2450, Australia
2North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia

Received 14 April 2015; Revised 11 August 2015; Accepted 9 September 2015

Academic Editor: Tibor Major

Copyright © 2015 Ashley Rankine et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Step-and-shoot (S&S) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the XiO treatment planning system (TPS) has been routinely used for patients receiving postprostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT). After installing the Monaco, a pilot study was undertaken with five patients to compare XiO with Monaco (V2.03) TPS for PPRT with respect to plan quality for S&S as well as volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Monaco S&S showed higher mean clinical target volume (CTV) coverage (99.85%) than both XiO S&S (97.98%, P = 0.04) and Monaco VMAT (99.44, P = 0.02). Rectal V60Gy volumes were lower for Monaco S&S compared to XiO (46.36% versus 58.06%, P = 0.001) and Monaco VMAT (46.36% versus 54.66%, P = 0.02). Rectal V60Gy volume was lowest for Monaco S&S and superior to XiO (mean 19.89% versus 31.25%, P = 0.02). Rectal V60Gy volumes were lower for Monaco VMAT compared to XiO (21.09% versus 31.25%, P = 0.02). Other organ-at-risk (OAR) parameters were comparable between TPSs. Compared to XiO S&S, Monaco S&S plans had fewer segments (78.6 versus 116.8 segments, P = 0.02), lower total monitor units (MU) (677.6 MU versus 770.7 MU, P = 0.01), and shorter beam-on times (5.7 min versus 7.6 min, P = 0.03). This pilot study suggests that Monaco S&S improves CTV coverage, OAR doses, and planning and treatment times for PPRT.