Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Renewable Energy
Volume 2013, Article ID 545212, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/545212
Research Article

Low-Temperature Processing of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
2Physics Department, Al Azhar University-Gaza, P.O. Box 1277, Gaza, Palestine

Received 5 September 2012; Revised 20 October 2012; Accepted 26 October 2012

Academic Editor: Onder Ozgener

Copyright © 2013 Naji Al Dahoudi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. W. Crabtree and N. S. Lewis, “Solar energy conversion,” Physics Today, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 37–42, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. A. Kerr, “How urgent is climate change?” Science, vol. 318, no. 5854, pp. 1230–1231, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. D. McConnell, “Assessment of the dye-sensitized solar cell,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 273–295, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. O'Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature, vol. 353, no. 6346, pp. 737–740, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 24–28, pp. L638–L640, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci et al., “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 48, pp. 16835–16847, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Grätzel, “Solar energy conversion by dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 20, pp. 6841–6851, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Grätzel, “Dye-sensitized solid-state heterojunction solar cells,” MRS Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 23–27, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Chiba, A. Islam, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Conversion efficiency of 10.8% by a dye-sensitized solar cell using a TiO2 electrode with high haze,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, no. 22, Article ID 223505, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Z. S. Wang, M. Yanagida, K. Sayama, and H. Sugihara, “Electronic-insulating coating of CaCO3 on TiO2 electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells: improvement of electron lifetime and efficiency,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2912–2916, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. K. Nazeeruddin, E. Baranoff, and M. Grätzel, “Dye-sensitized solar cells: a brief overview,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1172–1178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Yella, H. W. Lee, H. N. Tsao et al., “Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)-based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6056, pp. 629–634, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  13. S.-H. Fan, A.-G. Zhang, C. C. Ju, and K.-Z. Wang, “A phenylcarbazole functionalized ruthenium dye for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 2497–2506, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. L. Guo, X. Pan, C. Zhang et al., “Ionic liquid electrolyte based on S-propyltetrahydrothiophenium iodide for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Solar Energy, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 373–378, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Zhao, T. Peng, L. Lu, P. Cai, P. Jiang, and Z. Bian, “Effect of annealing temperature on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 22, pp. 8486–8494, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. Wang and L. L. Kerr, “Dye sensitized solar cells on paper substrates,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2531–2535, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S.-S. Kim, J. H. Yum, and Y. E. Sung, “Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells using ZnO coated TiO2 nanoparticles,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 269–273, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Pichot, J. R. Pitts, and B. A. Gregg, “Low-temperature sintering of TiO2 colloids: application to flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Langmuir, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 5626–5630, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Kado, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Yamada, and S. Hayase, “Low temperature preparation of nano-porous TiO2 layers for plastic dye sensitized solar cells,” Chemistry Letters, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1056–1057, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Gutiérrez-Tauste, I. Zumeta, E. Vigil, M. A. Hernández-Fenollosa, X. Domènech, and J. A. Ayllón, “New low-temperature preparation method of the TiO2 porous photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells using UV irradiation,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 175, no. 2-3, pp. 165–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. N. Murakami, Y. Kijitori, N. Kawashima, and T. Miyasaka, “Low temperature preparation of mesoporous TiO2 films for efficient dye-sensitized photoelectrode by chemical vapor deposition combined with UV light irradiation,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 164, no. 1–3, pp. 187–191, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. Al Dahoudi, Wet chemical deposition of transparent conducting coatings made of redispersable crystalline ITO nanoparticles on glass and polymeric substrates [Ph.D. thesis], University of Saarland, Saarbrucken, Germany, 2003.
  23. I. Maksimenko, M. Gross, T. Königer, H. Münstedt, and P. J. Wellmann, “Conductivity and adhesion enhancement in low-temperature processed indium tin oxide/polymer nanocomposites,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 518, no. 10, pp. 2910–2915, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Al Dahoudi, J. Xi, and G. Cao, “Silica modification of titania nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Electrochemica Acta, vol. 59, pp. 32–38, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. T. P. Chou, Q. Zhang, B. Russo, G. E. Fryxell, and G. Cao, “Titania particle size effect on the overall performance of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 17, pp. 6296–6302, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Sepeur, N. Kunze, B. Werner, and H. Schmidt, “UV curable hard coatings on plastics,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 351, no. 1-2, pp. 216–219, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. Ukaji, T. Furusawa, M. Sato, and N. Suzuki, “The effect of surface modification with silane coupling agent on suppressing the photo-catalytic activity of fine TiO2 particles as inorganic UV filter,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 254, no. 2, pp. 563–569, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Xi, N. Al Dahoudi, Q. Zhang, Y. Sun, and G. Cao, “Effect of annealing temperature on the performances and electrochemical properties of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells,” Science of Advanced Materials, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 727–733, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. T. V. Nguyen, H. C. Lee, M. Alam Khan, and O. B. Yang, “Electrodeposition of TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 529–534, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Q. A. Acton, Alloys: Advances in Research and Applications, Scholarly Edition, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2011.
  31. G. Philipp and H. Schmidt, “The reactivity of TiO2 and ZrO2 in organically modified silicates,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 82, no. 1–3, pp. 31–36, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Serpone and E. Pelizzetti, Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Applications, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  33. M. R. Hoffmann, S. T. Martin, W. Choi, and D. W. Bahnemann, “Environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 69–96, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Van De Lagemaat, N. G. Park, and A. J. Frank, “Influence of electrical potential distribution, charge transport, and recombination on the photopotential and photocurrent conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells: a study by electrical impedance and optical modulation techniques,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2044–2052, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Q. Wang, J. E. Moser, and M. Grätzel, “Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 31, pp. 14945–14953, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Schlichthörl, S. Y. Huang, J. Sprague, and A. J. Frank, “Band edge movement and recombination kinetics in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells: a study by intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 101, no. 41, pp. 8141–8155, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus