Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Renewable Energy
Volume 2015, Article ID 307329, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/307329
Research Article

The Study of Kinetic Properties and Analytical Pyrolysis of Coconut Shells

1Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
2Department of Chemical and Mining Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Received 22 May 2015; Revised 29 July 2015; Accepted 5 August 2015

Academic Editor: Hasan Ferdi Gercel

Copyright © 2015 Mahir Said et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Wilson, W. Yang, W. Blasiak, G. R. John, and C. F. Mhilu, “Thermal characterization of tropical biomass feedstocks,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 191–198, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. A. Kusekwa, Biomass Conversion to Energy in Tanzania: A Critique, New Developments in Renewable Energy, P. H. Arman, Ed., InTech, 2003.
  3. R. G. Fernández, C. P. García, A. G. Lavín, J. L. B. de las Heras, and J. J. Pis, “Influence of physical properties of solid biomass fuels on the design and cost of storage installations,” Waste Management, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1151–1157, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Mohan, C. U. Pittman Jr., and P. H. Steele, “Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: a critical review,” Energy & Fuels, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 848–889, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Yaman, “Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 651–671, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Shen, X.-S. Wang, M. Garcia-Perez, D. Mourant, M. J. Rhodes, and C.-Z. Li, “Effects of particle size on the fast pyrolysis of oil mallee woody biomass,” Fuel, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 1810–1817, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. ASTM, E870-82. Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Wood Fuels, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 2006.
  8. A. Demirbas, “Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 219–230, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. ASTM International, E1131-08, Standard Method for Compositional Analysis by Thermogravimetry, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 2014.
  10. S. Czernik and A. V. Bridgwater, “Overview of applications of biomass fast pyrolysis oil,” Energy & Fuels, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 590–598, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. A. Channiwala and P. P. Parikh, “A unified correlation for estimating HHV of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels,” Fuel, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1051–1063, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. J. Tsamba, W. Yang, and W. Blasiak, “Pyrolysis characteristics and global kinetics of coconut and cashew nut shells,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 523–530, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. M. A. W. Daud and W. S. W. Ali, “Comparison on pore development of activated carbon produced from palm shell and coconut shell,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 63–69, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. Ramsden and F. S. R. Blake, “A kinetic study of the acetylation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components in wood,” Wood Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Carrier, A. Loppinet-Serani, D. Denux et al., “Thermogravimetric analysis as a new method to determine the lignocellulosic composition of biomass,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 298–307, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. M. Isa, S. Daud, N. Hamidin, K. Ismail, S. A. Saad, and F. H. Kasim, “Thermogravimetric analysis and the optimisation of bio-oil yield from fixed-bed pyrolysis of rice husk using response surface methodology (RSM),” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 481–487, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. K. Baloch, M. J. Z. Khurram, and G. F. Durrani, “Application of different methods for the thermogravimetric analysis of polyethylene samples,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 120, no. 6, pp. 3511–3518, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Q. Lu, X.-C. Yang, C.-Q. Dong, Z.-F. Zhang, X.-M. Zhang, and X.-F. Zhu, “Influence of pyrolysis temperature and time on the cellulose fast pyrolysis products: analytical Py-GC/MS study,” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 430–438, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Pastorova, R. E. Botto, P. W. Arisz, and J. J. Boon, “Cellulose char structure: a combined analytical Py-GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR study,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 262, no. 1, pp. 27–47, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. K. Shen, S. Gu, and A. V. Bridgwater, “Study on the pyrolytic behaviour of xylan-based hemicellulose using TG–FTIR and Py–GC–FTIR,” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 199–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Ralph and R. D. Hatfield, “Pyrolysis-GC-MS characterization of forage materials,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1426–1437, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. A. Mullen and A. A. Boateng, “Catalytic pyrolysis-GC/MS of lignin from several sources,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 91, no. 11, pp. 1446–1458, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. V. Bridgwater, “Review of fast pyrolysis of biomass and product upgrading,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 38, pp. 68–94, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. A. Horne and P. T. Williams, “Influence of temperature on the products from the flash pyrolysis of biomass,” Fuel, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 1051–1059, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. T. Williams and S. Besler, “The influence of temperature and heating rate on the slow pyrolysis of biomass,” Renewable Energy, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 233–250, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Pütün, F. Ateş, and A. E. Pütün, “Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in inert and steam atmospheres,” Fuel, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 815–824, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Sipilä, E. Kuoppala, L. Fagernäs, and A. Oasmaa, “Characterization of biomass-based flash pyrolysis oils,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 103–113, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. X.-S. Zhang, G.-X. Yang, H. Jiang, W.-J. Liu, and H.-S. Ding, “Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis,” Scientific Reports, vol. 3, article 1120, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Gao, A. Li, C. Quan, L. Du, and Y. Duan, “TG–FTIR and Py–GC/MS analysis on pyrolysis and combustion of pine sawdust,” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 100, pp. 26–32, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. Güllü and A. Demirbaş, “Biomass to methanol via pyrolysis process,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1349–1356, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. Kantarelis, W. Yang, and W. Blasiak, “Production of liquid feedstock from biomass via steam pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor,” Energy & Fuels, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 4748–4759, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Wang, X. Guo, T. Liang, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “Mechanism research on cellulose pyrolysis by Py-GC/MS and subsequent density functional theory studies,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 104, pp. 722–728, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. J. Evans, C. C. Elam, M. Looker, and M. Nimlos, “Formation of aromatic hydrocarbons due to partial oxidation reactions in biomass gasification,” in Proceedings of the 218th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, p. U810, New Orleans, La, USA, August 1999.
  34. J. Piskorz, D. Radlein, and D. S. Scott, “On the mechanism of the rapid pyrolysis of cellulose,” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 121–137, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Brebu and C. Vasile, “Thermal degradation of lignin—a review,” Cellulose Chemistry & Technology, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 353–363, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Niemz, T. Hofmann, and T. Rétfalvi, “Investigation of chemical changes in the structure of thermally modified wood,” Maderas: Ciencia y Tecnologia, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C.-Z. Li and L. L. Tan, “Formation of NOx and SOx precursors during the pyrolysis of coal and biomass. Part III. Further discussion on the formation of HCN and NH3 during pyrolysis,” Fuel, vol. 79, no. 15, pp. 1899–1906, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Q. Ren, C. Zhao, X. Chen, L. Duan, Y. Li, and C. Ma, “NOx and N2O precursors (NH3 and HCN) from biomass pyrolysis: co-pyrolysis of amino acids and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 1715–1722, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. C. Di Blasi, “Modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 47–90, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus