Table of Contents
Journal of Solid State Physics
Volume 2014, Article ID 291469, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/291469
Review Article

Optical Measurement Techniques of Recombination Lifetime Based on the Free Carriers Absorption Effect

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell'Informazione, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Claudio, 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy

Received 15 November 2013; Revised 21 February 2014; Accepted 3 April 2014; Published 24 June 2014

Academic Editor: George Cirlin

Copyright © 2014 Martina De Laurentis and Andrea Irace. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Z. G. Ling, P. K. Ajmera, M. Anselment, and L. F. Dimauro, “Lifetime measurements in semiconductors by infrared absorption due to pulsed optical excitation,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 51, no. 18, pp. 1445–1447, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Bail, J. Kentsch, R. Brendel, and M. Schulz, “Lifetime mapping of Si wafers by an infrared camera [for solar cellproduction],” in Proceedings of the 28th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 99–103, IEEE, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 2000.
  3. S. Riepe, J. Isenberg, C. Ballif, S. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Carrier density and lifetime imaging of silicon wafers by infrared lock-in thermography,” in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, pp. 1597–1599, 2001.
  4. N. Ashcroft and N. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Cengage Learning, Singapore, 1976.
  5. C. Kittel and P. McEuen, Introduction to Solid State Physics, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  6. J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells, Imperial College Press, 2003.
  7. V. K. Khanna, “Physical understanding and technological control of carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials and devices: a critique of conceptual development, state of the art and applications,” Progress in Quantum Electronics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 59–163, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Landsberg, Recombination in Semiconductors, Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  9. R. N. Hall, “Electron-hole recombination in germanium,” Physical Review, vol. 87, no. 2, p. 387, 1952. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Shockley and W. T. Read, “Statistics of the recombinations of holes and electrons,” Physical Review, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 835–842, 1952. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. K. Khanna, “Carrier lifetimes and recombination-generation mechanisms in semiconductor device physics,” European Journal of Physics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 221–237, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Pincherle, “Auger effect in semiconductors,” Proceedings of the Physical Society B, vol. 68, no. 5, article 108, pp. 319–320, 1955. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. S. Moss, “Photoelectromagnetic and photoconductive effects in lead sulphide single crystals,” Proceedings of the Physical Society B, vol. 66, no. 12, article 301, pp. 993–1002, 1953. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. A. Hornbeck and J. R. Haynes, “Trapping of minority carriers in silicon. I. P-type silicon,” Physical Review, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 311–321, 1955. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Auger, “The compound photoelectric effect,” Journal de Physique et le Radium, vol. 6, no. 6, article 205, 1925. View at Google Scholar
  16. P. T. Landsberg and T. S. Moss, “Recombination theory for indium antimonide,” Proceedings of the Physical Society B, vol. 69, no. 6, article 310, pp. 661–669, 1956. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. T. Landsberg, “Lifetimes of excess carriers in InSb,” Proceedings of the Physical Society B, vol. 70, no. 12, article 109, pp. 1175–1176, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Beattie and P. Landsberg, “Auger effect in semiconductors,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol. 249, no. 1256, pp. 16–29, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. A. B. Grebene, “Comments on auger recombination in semiconductors,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 4866–4868, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Lal, C. Rhys-Roberts, and P. Landsberg, Auger Recombination Into Traps, Ft. Belvoir Defense Technical Information Center, 1964.
  21. P. T. Landsberg, “Trap-Auger recombination in silicon of low carrier densities,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 745–747, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Dziewior and W. Schmid, “Auger coefficients for highly doped and highly excited silicon,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 346–348, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. J. Fitzgerald and A. S. Grove, “Surface recombination in semiconductors,” Surface Science, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 347–369, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. T. Landsberg, “Some general recombination statistics for semiconductor surfaces,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. ED-29, no. 8, pp. 1284–1286, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. E. Aspnes, “Recombination at semiconductor surfaces and interfaces,” Surface Science, vol. 132, no. 1–3, pp. 406–421, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. J. Rees, “Surface recombination velocity: a useful concept?” Solid State Electronics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 517–519, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. K. Schröder, “Carrier lifetimes in silicon,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 160–170, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. B. Briggs, “Infra-red absorption in silicon,” Physical Review, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 727–728, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Fan and M. Becker, “Infra-red optical properties of silicon and germanium,” in Semi-Conducting Materials: Proceedings of a Conference Held at the University of Reading under the Auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, in cooperation with the Royal Society, p. 132, Butterworths Scientific Publications, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  30. H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, “New infrared absorption bands in p-type germanium,” Physical Review, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 1130–1131, 1952. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, “Absorption of infrared light by free carriers in germanium,” Physical Review, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1342–1346, 1953. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. H. Kahn, “Theory of the infrared absorption of carriers in germanium and silicon,” Physical Review, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1647–1652, 1955. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Y. Fan, W. Spitzer, and R. J. Collins, “Infrared absorption in n-type germanium,” Physical Review, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 566–572, 1956. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Physical Review, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 268–271, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Visvanathan, “Free carrier absorption due to polar modes in the III-V compound semiconductors,” Physical Review, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 376–378, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. P. Dumke, “Quantum theory of free carrier absorption,” Physical Review, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 1813–1817, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Hara and Y. Nishi, “Free carrier absorption in p-type silicon,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol. 21, no. 6, p. 1222, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Runyan, Technology Semiconductor Silicon, 1966.
  39. D. Schroder, R. Thomas, and J. Swartz, “Free carrier absorption in silicon,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 25, pp. 254–261, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  40. J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semi-Conductors, Dover Publications, 1971.
  41. P. Basu, Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors: Bulk and Microstructures, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  42. B. Nag, Electron Transport in Compound Semiconductors, Springer, 1980.
  43. G. Chiarotti and U. M. Grassano, “The excited states of the F center investigated by means of modulated optical absorption,” Il Nuovo Cimento B Series 10, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 78–92, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Chiarotti and U. M. Grassano, “Modulated F-center absorption in KCl,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 124–127, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. W. B. Gauster and J. C. Bushnell, “Laser-induced infrared absorption in silicon,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 3850–3853, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. J. Conway, “Light-induced modulation of broad-band optical absorption in CdS,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 1689–1693, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. F. Sanii, R. J. Schwartz, R. F. Pierret, and W. M. Au, “Measurement of bulk and surface recombination by means of modulated free carrier absorption,” in Proceedings of the 20th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 575–580, September 1988. View at Scopus
  48. F. P. Giles, F. Sanii, R. J. Schwartz, and J. L. Gray, “Nondestructive contactless measurement of bulk lifetime and surface recombination using single pass infrared free carrier absorption,” in Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 223–228, October 1991. View at Scopus
  49. S. W. Glunz, A. B. Sproul, W. Warta, and W. Wettling, “Injection-level-dependent recombination velocities at the Si-SiO2 interface for various dopant concentrations,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 1611–1615, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. W. Glunz and W. Warta, “High-resolution lifetime mapping using modulated free-carrier absorption,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 77, no. 7, pp. 3243–3247, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Z. G. Ling and P. K. Ajmera, “Measurement of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity by infrared absorption due to pulsed optical excitation,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 519–521, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. S. Kousik, Z. G. Ling, and P. K. Ajmera, “Nondestructive technique to measure bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocities at the two surfaces by infrared absorption due to pulsed optical excitation,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 141–146, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Otaredian, “Separate contactless measurement of the bulk lifetime and the surface recombination velocity by the harmonic optical generation of the excess carriers,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 153–162, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. Z. G. Ling, P. K. Ajmera, and G. S. Kousik, “Simultaneous extraction of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocities from free carrier absorption transients,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 2718–2720, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. K. L. Luke and L.-J. Cheng, “Analysis of the interaction of a laser pulse with a silicon wafer: determination of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2282–2293, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Linnros, “Carrier lifetime measurements using free carrier absorption transients. I: principle and injection dependence,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 275–283, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Linnros, “Carrier lifetime measurements using free carrier absorption transients. II. Lifetime mapping and effects of surface recombination,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 284–291, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. Bernini, A. Cutolo, A. Irace, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, “Contactless characterization of the recombination process in silicon wafers: separation between bulk and surface contribution,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1165–1172, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Irace, L. Sirleto, G. F. Vitale et al., “Transverse probe optical lifetime measurement as a tool for in-line characterization of the fabrication process of a silicon solar cell,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 2235–2242, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. C. Schubert, S. Riepe, S. Bermejo, and W. Warta, “Determination of spatially resolved trapping parameters in silicon with injection dependent carrier density imaging,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 99, no. 11, Article ID 114908, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. Ramspeck, S. Reissenweber, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Dynamic carrier lifetime imaging of silicon wafers using an infrared-camera-based approach,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 10, Article ID 102104, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. Buczkowski, Z. J. Radzimski, G. A. Rozgonyi, and F. Shimura, “Bulk and surface components of recombination lifetime based on a two-laser microwave reflection technique,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 6495–6499, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. Sirleto, A. Irace, G. F. Vitale, L. Zeni, and A. Cutolo, “Separation of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity by multiwavelength technique,” Electronics Letters, vol. 38, no. 25, pp. 1742–1743, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. Sirleto, A. Irace, G. F. Vitale, L. Zeni, and A. Cutolo, “Separation of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity obtained by transverse optical probing and multi-wavelength technique,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 461–472, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. Sirleto, A. Irace, G. Vitale, L. Zeni, and A. Cutolo, “All-optical multiwavelength technique for the simultaneous measurement of bulk recombination lifetimes and front/rear surface recombination velocity in single crystal silicon samples,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 3407–3413, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Irace, L. Sirleto, P. Spirito et al., “Optical characterization of the recombination process in silicon wafers, epilayers and devices,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 219–232, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Irace, F. Sorrentino, and G. F. Vitale, “Multi-wavelength transverse probe lifetime measurement for the characterization of recombination lifetime in thin mc-Si samples for photovoltaic industry use,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 84, no. 1–4, pp. 83–92, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Irace, F. Sorrentino, and G. F. Vitale, “Multi-wavelength all optical measurement for the characterization of recombination process in thin mc-Si samples,” Solar Energy, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 251–256, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. Gaubas and J. Vanhellemont, “A simple technique for the separation of bulk and surface recombination parameters in silicon,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 6293–6297, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. E. Gaubas, J. Vaitkus, E. Simoen, C. Claeys, and J. Vanhellemont, “Excess carrier cross-sectional profiling technique for determination of the surface recombination velocity,” Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 4, no. 1–3, pp. 125–131, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. De Laurentis, A. Irace, and G. Breglio, “Accurate modelling of the pump-probe spatial interaction in an all-optical recombination lifetime measurement setup,” in Proceedings of the 1st Mediterranean Photonics Conference, p. 40, Ischia, Italy, 2008.
  72. M. De Laurentis, A. Irace, and G. Breglio, “Determination of the surface electrical activity in silicon wafers with a laser pump-probe measurement,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Photo-Excited Processes and Applications, p. 121, 2008.
  73. A. G. Aberle, J. Schmidt, and R. Brendel, “On the data analysis of light-biased photoconductance decay measurements,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 1491–1496, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. Schmidt and A. G. Aberle, “Accurate method for the determination of bulk minority-carrier lifetimes of mono- and multicrystalline silicon wafers,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 6186–6199, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. M. Schuurmans, A. Schönecker, A. R. Burgers, and W. C. Sinke, “Simplified evaluation method for light-biased effective lifetime measurements,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 71, no. 13, pp. 1795–1797, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Schmidt, “Measurement of differential and actual recombination parameters on crystalline silicon wafers,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 2018–2025, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. O. Breitenstein and M. Langenkamp, Lock-in Thermography: Basics and Use for Functional Diagnostics of Electronic Components, Springer, 2003.
  78. W. Warta, “Advanced defect and impurity diagnostics in silicon based on carrier lifetime measurements,” Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science, vol. 203, no. 4, pp. 732–746, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. C. Schubert, J. Isenberg, and W. Warta, “Spatially resolved lifetime imaging of silicon wafers by measurement of infrared emission,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 4139–4143, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Isenberg, S. Riepe, S. W. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Carrier density imaging (CDI): a spatially resolved lifetime measurement suitable for in-line process-control,” in Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 266–269, May 2002. View at Scopus
  81. J. Isenberg, S. Riepe, S. W. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Imaging method for laterally resolved measurement of minority carrier densities and lifetimes: measurement principle and first applications,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 4268–4275, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. Pohl and R. Brendel, “Temperature dependent infrared camera lifetime mapping (ILM),” in Proceedings of the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, pp. 46–49, Paris, France, 2004.