Table of Contents
Journal of Signal Transduction
Volume 2011, Article ID 635721, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/635721
Review Article

Regulation of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling as a Therapeutic Approach in Autoimmune Diseases, with an Emphasis on Multiple Sclerosis

1Department of Cardiology, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 16511, USA
2Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA

Received 29 June 2011; Accepted 9 September 2011

Academic Editor: Fred Schaper

Copyright © 2011 Vinod S. Ramgolam and Silva Markovic-Plese. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating, presumably autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Among the available MS therapies, interferon (IFN)β and the recently introduced statins have been reported to exert their immunomodulatory effects through the induction of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in various inflammatory cell subsets. The SOCS proteins negatively regulate cytokine and Toll-like receptors- (TLR-) induced signaling in the inflammatory cells. SOCS1 and SOCS3 have been reported to play an important role in the regulation of Th17-cell differentiation through their effects on the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. IFNβ and statins inhibit Th17-cell differentiation directly and indirectly via induction of SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and B-cells. Due to their rapid induction and degradation, and SOCS-mediated regulation of multiple cytokine-signaling pathways, they represent an attractive therapeutic target in the autoimmune diseases, and particularly relapsing remitting (RR) MS.