Table 1: Summary of enteric bacteria and their contribution to intestinal inflammation in UC.

Role in UCStrainLocationReference

Initiation of inflammationCampylobacter spp.Europe[19, 20]
Salmonella spp.Europe[19, 20]
Shigella spp.Europe[19, 20, 34]

ProinflammatoryCampylobacter spp.Europe[37]
Escherichia coliEurope and America[26, 34, 3943]
Rhodococcus spp.Europe[34]
Stenotrophomonas spp.Europe[34]
Enterohepatic Helicobacter Europe and America[44, 45]
Bacteroides ovatusAsia[46]
Fusobacterium variumAsia[47]

Anti-inflammatoryBacteroides spp.Europe and America[26, 28, 29]
Faecalibacterium prausnitziiEurope[34]
Lactobacillus spp.Europe[54]
Pediococcus acidilactici Europe[54]