Table of Contents
Journal of Signal Transduction
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 931215, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/931215
Review Article

The Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Proteins in Stress Responses

1Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
2Division of Cell Regulation, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
3Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan

Received 22 April 2012; Accepted 10 June 2012

Academic Editor: Rudi Beyaert

Copyright © 2012 Yusuke Kanamaru et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To maintain cellular homeostasis, cells are equipped with precise systems that trigger the appropriate stress responses. Mitochondria not only provide cellular energy but also integrate stress response signaling pathways, including those regulating cell death. Several lines of evidence suggest that the mitochondrial proteins that function in this process, such as Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis and phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5) in necroptosis, are regulated by several kinases. It has also been suggested that the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial fission machinery, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), facilitates appropriate cellular stress responses. However, mitochondria themselves are also damaged by various stresses. To avoid the deleterious effects exerted by damaged mitochondria, cells remove these mitochondria in a selective autophagic degradation process called mitophagy. Interestingly, several kinases, such as PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) in mammals and stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in yeast, have recently been shown to be involved in mitophagy. In this paper, we focus on the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial proteins and discuss the roles of this regulation in the mitochondrial and cellular stress responses.