Table of Contents
Journal of Thermodynamics
Volume 2010, Article ID 271291, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/271291
Review Article

Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX 77446-0397, USA
2Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Georgia Institute of Technology, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6181, USA

Received 6 August 2009; Accepted 23 November 2009

Academic Editor: Jae Lee

Copyright © 2010 Jorge F. Gabitto and Costas Tsouris. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Englezos, “Clathrate hydrates,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1251–1274, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. D. Sloan Jr., “Gas hydrates: review of physical/chemical properties,” Energy & Fuels, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. D. Sloan Jr., Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2006.
  4. E. G. Hammerschmidt, “Formation of gas hydrates in natural gas transmission Lines,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 851–855, 1934. View at Google Scholar
  5. Y. F. Makogon, “Hydrate formation in gas bearing strata under perma frost,” Gazov Prom-st, vol. 5, pp. 14–15, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  6. K. A. Kvenvolden and T. D. Lorenson, “The global occurrence of natural gas hydrate,” in Natural Gas Hydrates, Occurrence, Distribution, and Detection. Geophysical Monograph, C. K. Paull and W. P. Dillon, Eds., vol. 124, pp. 3–18, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  7. T. S. Collett, “Natural-gas hydrates; resource of the twenty-first century?” Journal of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, vol. 74, pp. 85–108, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  8. I. Lerche and E. Bagirov, “Guide to gas hydrate stability in various geological settings,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 15, pp. 427–438, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. K. A. Kvenvolden, “Gas hydrates—geological perspective and global change,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 173–187, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. K. McMullan and G. A. Jeffrey, “Polyhedral clathrate hydrates. IX. Structure of ethylene oxide hydrate,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 2725–2732, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. W. Mak and R. K. McMullan, “Polyhedral clathrate hydrates. X. Structure of double hydrate of tetrahydrofuran and hydrogen sulfide,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 42, pp. 2732–2737, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  12. C. A. Koh, “Towards a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrates,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 157–167, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. A. Ripmeester, J. S. Tse, C. I. Ratcliffe, and B. M. Powell, “A new clathrate hydrate structure,” Nature, vol. 325, no. 6100, pp. 135–136, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. A. Ripmeester, “The role of heavier hydrocarbons in hydrate formation,” in Proceedings of the AIChE Spring Meeting, Houston, Tex, USA, April 1991.
  15. A. P. Mehta and E. D. Sloan Jr., “Structure H hydrate phase equilibria of methane + liquid hydrocarbon mixtures,” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 580–582, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. P. Mehta and E. D. Sloan Jr., “Structure H hydrate phase equilibria of paraffins, naphthenes, and olefins with methane,” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, vol. 39, pp. 887–890, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. A. P. Mehta and E. D. Sloan Jr., “A thermodynamic model for structure-H hydrates,” AIChE Journal, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. A. P. Mehta and E. D. Sloan Jr., “Improved thermodynamic parameters for prediction of structure H hydrate equilibria,” AIChE Journal, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 2036–2046, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Sassen and I. R. MacDonald, “Evidence of structure H hydrate, Gulf of Mexico continental slope,” Organic Geochemistry, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1029–1032, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. K. A. Udachin, C. I. Ratcliffe, and J. A. Ripmeester, “A dense and efficient clathrate hydrate structure with unusual cages,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1303–1305, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. S. Loveday, R. J. Nelmes, M. Guthrie et al., “Stable methane hydrate above 2 GPa and the source of Titan's atmospheric methane,” Nature, vol. 410, no. 6829, pp. 661–663, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I.-M. Chou, A. Sharma, R. C. Burruss et al., “Transformations in methane hydrates,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 25, pp. 13484–13487, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Yang, C. A. Tulk, D. D. Klug et al., “Synthesis and characterization of a new structure of gas hydrate,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 15, pp. 6060–6064, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. W. Davidson, “Gas hydrates as clathrates of ices,” in Natural Gas Hydrates: Properties, Occurrence and Recovery, J. L. Cox, Ed., pp. 1–16, Butterworths, Boston, Mass, USA, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. S. Tse, “Dynamicl properties and stability of clathrate hydrates,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 715, pp. 187–206, 1994, 1st International Conference on Natural Gas Hydrates. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. G. Cook and D. G. Leaist, “An exploratory study of the thermal conductivity of methane hydrate,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 397–399, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. R. G. Ross, P. Anderson, and G. Backstrom, “Effects of H and D order on the thermal conductivity of ice phases,” The Journal Chemistry Physics, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 3967–3972, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. R. D. Stoll and G. M. Bryan, “Physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 84, no. B4, pp. 1629–1634, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Ashworth, L. R. Johnson, and L. P. Lai, “Thermal conductivity of pure ice and tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrates,” High Temperatures-High Pressures, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 413–419, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. S. Tse and M. A. White, “Origin of glassy crystalline behavior in the thermal properties of clathrate hydrates: a thermal conductivity study of tetrahydrofuran hydrate,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 92, no. 17, pp. 5006–5011, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. O. Andersson and H. Suga, “Thermal conductivity of normal and deuterated tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrates,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 125–132, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. I. Martin, Hydrate bearing sediments—thermal conductivity, M.S. thesis, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2004.
  33. D. Klaeschen, M. Zillmer, and J. Bialas, “IFM-GEOMAR Report 2002–2004,” chapter 3, http://www.ifm-geomar.de/index.php?id=3500.
  34. R. A. Duncan, H.C. Larsen, J. F. Allan et al., “Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program,” Initial Report 164, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Tex, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  35. N. Lubick, “Detecting marine gas hydrates,” Geotimes, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 28–30, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  36. T. Yuan, K. S. Nahar, R. Chand, R. D. Hyndman, G. D. Spence, and N. R. Chapman, “Marine gas hydrates: seismic observations of bottom-simulating reflectors off the west coast of Canada and the east coast of India,” Geohorizons, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  37. S. Constable, “Marine electromagnetic methods for gas hydrate characterization,” submitted to Seafloor Electromagnetic Methods Consortium, http://marineemlab.ucsd.edu/Projects/GoMHydrate/Proposal_3.pdf.
  38. M. Holland, P. Schultheiss, J. Roberts, and M. Druce, “Observed gas hydrate morphologies in marine sediments,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH '08), Vancouver, Canada, July 2008.
  39. R. Malone, “Gas hydrates topical report,” Tech. Rep. DOE/METC/SP-218 (DE85001986), Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WVa, USA, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  40. A. E. Cook and D. Goldberg, “Gas hydrate filled fracture distribution, eastern Indian continental margin,” in Proceedings of the American Geophysical Union. Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2007, abstract no. OS11C-04.
  41. D. Long, M. A. Lovell, J. G. Rees, and C. A. Rochelle, “Sediment-hosted gas hydrates: new insights on natural and synthetic systems,” Geological Society of London, vol. 319, pp. 1–9, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. B. Clennell, M. Hovland, J. S. Booth, P. Henry, and W. J. Winters, “Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments—part 1: conceptual model of gas hydrate growth conditioned by host sediment properties,” Journal of Geophysical Research B, vol. 104, no. B10, pp. 22985–23003, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Henry, M. Thomas, and M. B. Clennell, “Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments—part 2: thermodynamic calculations of stability conditions in porous sediments,” Journal of Geophysical Research B, vol. 104, no. B10, pp. 23005–23022, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. L. Kleinberg, C. Flaum, D. D. Griffin et al., “Deep sea NMR: methane hydrate growth habit in porous media and its relationship to hydraulic permeability, deposit accumulation, and submarine slope stability,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 108, p. 2508, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. A. P. Camps, Hydrate formation in near surface ocean sediments, unpublished thesis, Department of Geology, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK, 2007.
  46. M. Riedel, T. S. Collet, M. J. Malone, and Expedition 311 Scientists, “Expedition 311 summary,” in Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP '06), vol. 311, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Washington, DC, USA, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. R. Anderson, M. Llamedo, B. Tohidi, and R. W. Burgass, “Experimental measurement of methane and carbon dioxide clathrate hydrate equilibria in mesoporous silica,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 15, pp. 3507–3514, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Llamedo, R. Anderson, and B. Tohidi, “Thermodynamic prediction of clathrate hydrate dissociation conditions in mesoporous media,” American Mineralogist, vol. 89, no. 8-9, pp. 1264–1270, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. U. Tinivella, F. Accaino, M. Giustiniani, and M. F. Loreto, “Gas hydrate and mud volcanoes offshore Antarctic Peninsula: a geophysical study,” in Proceedings of the Goldschmidt Conference, Davos, Switzerland, June 2009.
  50. C. Ecker, J. Dvorkin, and A. M. Nur, “Estimating the amount of gas hydrate and free gas from marine seismic data,” Geophysics, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 565–573, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Dvorkin, M. Helgerud, W. Waite, S. Kirby, and A. Nur, “Introduction to physical properties and elasticity models,” in Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments, M. D. Max, Ed., pp. 245–260, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  52. G. E. Archie, “The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics,” Petroleum Transactions of AIME, vol. 146, pp. 54–62, 1942. View at Google Scholar
  53. E. Spangenberg, “Modeling of the influence of gas hydrate content on the electrical properties of porous sediments,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. B. Tohidi, R. Anderson, M. B. Clennell, R. W. Burgass, and A. B. Biderkab, “Visual observation of gas-hydrate formation and dissociation in synthetic porous media by means of glass micromodels,” Geology, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 867–870, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. Kingston, Ch. Clayton, and J. Priest, “Gas hydrate growth morphologies and their effect on the stiffness and damping of a hydrate bearing sand,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH '08), Vancouver, Canada, July 2008.
  56. G. J. Moridis, T. S. Collett, S. R. Dallimore, T. Satoh, S. Hancock, and B. Weatherill, “Numerical studies of gas production from several CH4 hydrate zones at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, vol. 43, no. 3-4, pp. 219–238, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Koponen, M. Kataja, and J. Timonen, “Permeability and effective porosity of porous media,” Physical Review E, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 3319–3325, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. M. Singh and K. K. Mohanty, “Permeability of spatially correlated porous media,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 55, no. 22, pp. 5393–5403, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. Y. Bernabè, U. Mok, and B. Evans, “Permeability-porosity relationships in rocks subjected to various evolution processes,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 160, no. 5-6, pp. 937–960, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. H. Arns, M. A. Knackstedt, and N. S. Martys, “Cross-property correlations and permeability estimation in sandstone,” Physical Review E, vol. 72, no. 4, Article ID 046304, pp. 1–12, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. Jin, J. Nagao, S. Takeya et al., “Structural investigation of methane hydrate sediments by microfocus X-ray computed tomography technique under high-pressure conditions,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 27, pp. L714–L716, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Y. Jin, J. Nagao, J. Hayashi et al., “Assessment of the absolute permeability of natural methane hydrate sediments by microfocus X-ray computed tomography,” in Proceedings of the 7th ISOPE Ocean Mining Symposium, pp. 93–96, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2007. View at Scopus
  63. H. Minagawa, Y. Nishikawa, I. Ikeda et al., “Relation between permeability and pore-size distribution of methane-hydrate-bearing sediments,” in Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Tex, USA, May 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. Y. Yang and A. C. Aplin, “Influence of lithology and compaction on the pore size distribution and modeled permeability of some mudstones from the Norwegian margin,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 163–175, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  65. I. N. Tsimpanogiannis and P. C. Lichtner, “Parametric study of methane hydrate dissociation in oceanic sediments driven by thermal stimulation,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, vol. 56, no. 1–3, pp. 165–175, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. Dvorkin and A. Nur, “Seismic amplitudes from gas hydrates,” E&P, November 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Judge, “Natural gas hydrate in Canada,” in Proceedings of the 4th Canadian Permafrost Conference, pp. 320–328, 1982. View at Scopus
  68. R. D. Stoll, J. Edwing, and G. M. Bryan, “Anomalous wave velocities in sediments containing gas hydrates,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 2090–2094, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. R.D. Stoll, “Effects of gas hydrates in sediments,” in Natural Gases in Marine Sediments, L. R. Kaplan, Ed., pp. 235–247, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  70. C. Pearson, J. Murphy, and R. Hermes, “Acoustic and resistivity measurements on rock samples containing tetrahydrofuran hydrates: laboratory analogues to natural gas hydrate deposits,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 91, no. 14, pp. 14132–14138, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. C. Pearson, P. M. Halleck, P. L. McGuire, R. Hermes, and M. Mathews, “Natural gas hydrate deposits: a review of in situ properties,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 87, no. 21, pp. 4180–4185, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. W. F. Murphy, “Acoustic measures of partial gas saturation in tight sandstones,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 89, no. 13, pp. 11549–11559, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. J. C. Santamarina and C. Ruppel, “The impact of hydrate saturation on the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silts, and clay,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH '08), Vancouver, Canada, July 2008.
  74. J. C. Santamarina, F. Francisca, T. S. Yun, J. Y. Lee, A. I. Martin, and C. Ruppel, “Mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of hydrate bearing sediments,” in Proceedings of the AAPG Hedberg Research Conference, Vancouver, Canada, September 2004.
  75. W. J. Winters, W. F. Waite, D. H. Mason, L. Y. Gilbert, and I. A. Pecher, “Methane gas hydrate effect on sediment acoustic and strength properties,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, vol. 56, no. 1–3, pp. 127–135, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. Fernandez and J. C. Santamarina, “The effect of cementation on the small strain parameters of sands,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 191–199, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  77. T. S. Yun, J. C. Santamarina, and C. Ruppel, “Mechanical properties of sand, silt, and clay containing tetrahydrofuran hydrate,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 112, Article ID B04106, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  78. J. C. Santamarina, K. A. Klein, and M. A. Fam, Soils and Waves: Particulate Materials Behavior, Characterization and Process Monitoring, vol. 488, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  79. W. B. Durham, L. A. Stern, S. H. Kirby, and S. Circone, “Rheological comparisons and structural imaging of sI and sII end member gas hydrates and hydrate/sediment aggregates,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Gas Hydrates, Tapir Academic, Trondheim, Norway, 2005.