Table of Contents
Journal of Vaccines
Volume 2013, Article ID 181834, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/181834
Research Article

Effects of a Commercial Canine Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Vaccination on Intact Male Llamas and Alpacas

1Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
3Battelle Toxicology Northwest, Richland, WA 99352, USA
4Animal Health Diagnostic Center, Endocrinology Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

Received 18 December 2012; Accepted 19 February 2013

Academic Editor: Phillip R. Pittman

Copyright © 2013 C. E. Donovan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. E. Fowler, “Llama and alpaca behaviour: a clue to illness detection,” Journal of Camel Practice and Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 135–152, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Nickolmann, S. Hoy, and M. Gauly, “Effects of the castration of male llamas (Lama glama) on their behavior, the testosterone and serum thyroid horomone level,” in Proceedings of the 3rd European Symposium and Supreme European Seminar on Progress in South American Camelids Research, pp. 75–78, Gottingen, Germany, 1999.
  3. J. L. Grossman and M. A. Kutzler, “Effects of castration in male llamas (Lama glama) on human-directed aggression,” Theriogenology, vol. 68, p. 511, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. E. Fowler, “Castration,” in Medicine and Surgery of South American Camelids, pp. 135–137, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  5. F. Janett, R. Stump, D. Burger, and R. Thun, “Suppression of testicular function and sexual behavior by vaccination against GnRH (Equity) in the adult stallion,” Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 115, no. 1–4, pp. 88–102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Peirouvi and S. Salami, “GnRH agonist induces apoptosis in seminiferous tubules of immature rats: direct gonadal action,” Andrologia, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 231–235, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. K. Levy, L. A. Miller, P. C. Crawford, J. W. Ritchey, M. K. Ross, and K. A. Fagerstone, “GnRH immunocontraception of male cats,” Theriogenology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1116–1130, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. Kiyma, T. E. Adams, B. W. Hess, M. L. Riley, W. J. Murdoch, and G. E. Moss, “Gonadal function, sexual behavior, feedlot performance, and carcass traits of ram lambs actively immunized against GnRH,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 2237–2243, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. P. Amann and B. D. Schanbacher, “Physiology of male reproduction,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 57, pp. 380–403, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Yoshida, K. Miura, and M. Shirai, “Evaluation of seminiferous tubule scores obtained through testicular biopsy examinations of nonobstructive azoospermic men,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 514–518, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Zamaratskaia, L. Rydhmer, H. K. Andersson et al., “Long-term effect of vaccination against gonadotropin-releasing hormone, using Improvac, on hormonal profile and behaviour of male pigs,” Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 37–48, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. B. Cook, J. D. Popp, J. P. Kastelic, S. Robbins, and R. Harland, “The effects of active immunization against GnRH on testicular development, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of beef bulls,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 2778–2783, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. M. Ghoneim, M. M. Waheed, M. M. Al-Eknah, and S. M. El-Bahr, “Immunization against GnRH in the male camel (Camelus dromedaries): effects on sexual behavior, testicular volume, semen characteristics and serum testosterone concentrations,” Theriogenology, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 1102–1109, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. J. Walker, S. Ghosh, J. Pagnon et al., “Totally synthetic peptide-based immunocontraceptive vaccines show activity in dogs of different breeds,” Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 41, pp. 7111–7119, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. A. Herbert and T. E. Trigg, “Applications of GnRH in the control and management of fertility in female animals,” Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 88, no. 1-2, pp. 141–153, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Trachtenberg, L. L. Hicks, and P. C. Walsh, “Androgen- and estrogen-receptor content in spontaneous and experimentally induced canine prostatic hyperplasia,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 1051–1059, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Pfizer Animal Health, “Canine gonadotropin releasing factor immunotherapeutic,” Vaccine Package Insert, Exton, Pa, USA.
  18. C. E. Donovan, M. Greer, and M. A. Kutzler, “Physiologic responses following gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunization in intact male dogs,” Reproduction in Domestic Animals, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 403–405, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Greer and M. Kutzler, “Use of a canine GnRH vaccine for behavior modification in cats,” Clinical Theriogenology, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 422, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. R. M. Harrison, G. J. Domingue, P. M. Heidger, J. A. Roberts, and J. U. Schlegel, “Vasectomy in rhesus monkeys. I. Surgical techniques and gross observations,” Urology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 639–644, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Elhay, A. Newbold, A. Britton, P. Turley, K. Dowsett, and J. Walker, “Suppression of behavioural and physiological oestrus in the mare by vaccination against GnRH,” Australian Veterinary Journal, vol. 85, no. 1-2, pp. 39–45, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Frey, J. Di Canzio, and D. Zurakowski, “A statistically defined endpoint titer determination method for immunoassays,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 221, no. 1-2, pp. 35–41, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. A. Valentine, T. W. Riebold, P. L. Wolff, and A. L. Sanchez, “Cerebral injury from intracarotid injection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos),” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 149–152, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. N. Baird, D. G. Pugh, J. G. W. Wenzel, and H. C. Lin, “Comparison of two techniques for castration of llamas,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 208, no. 2, pp. 261–262, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Tibary and J. Vaughan, “Reproductive physiology and infertility in male South American camelids: a review and clinical observations,” Small Ruminant Research, vol. 61, no. 2-3, pp. 283–298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. W. Bravo, M. E. Fowler, G. H. Stabenfeldt, B. L. Lasley, and R. Frey, “Testis growth and testosterone concentrations in the male llama,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, vol. 3, p. 789, 1992.
  27. B. Urquieta, R. Cepeda, J. E. Céceres, L. A. Raggi, and J. R. Rojas, “Seasonal variation in some reproductive parameters of male vicuña in the High Andes of northern Chile,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 79–87, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. R. Cunningham and C. Huckins, “Persistence of complete spermatogenesis in the presence of low intratesticular concentrations of testosterone,” Endocrinology, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 177–186, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. R. Zirkin, R. Santulli, C. A. Awoniyi, and L. L. Ewing, “Maintenance of advanced spermatogenic cells in the adult rat testis: quantitative relationship to testosterone concentration within the testis,” Endocrinology, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 3043–3049, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. T. Turner, C. E. Jones, and S. S. Howards, “On the androgen microenvironment of maturing spermatozoa,” Endocrinology, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 1925–1932, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus