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Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Volume 2018, Article ID 3602081, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3602081
Research Article

Prevalence of Haemonchus contortus Infections in Sheep and Goats in Nyagatare District, Rwanda

1School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, P. Bag 13301, Pioneerspark, Windhoek, Namibia
2School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture, Environment and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, P.O. Box 57 Nyagatare, Rwanda
3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, P. Bag UB0074, Gaborone, Botswana
4Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X1314, Alice, South Africa

Correspondence should be addressed to Alaster Samkange; moc.liamg@egnakmasretsala

Received 7 June 2018; Accepted 27 August 2018; Published 6 September 2018

Academic Editor: William Alberto Cañón-Franco

Copyright © 2018 Borden Mushonga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study investigated the overall prevalence of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep and goats from five purposively selected subdivisions (sectors) of Nyagatare district from January to December 2014, after a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and generalized poor productivity was reported in small ruminants in some districts of Rwanda. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed using the Modified Wisconsin Sugar Floatation method and the Fluorescent-labeled peanut-lectin agglutination test while enumerations, as log (FEC), were done using the modified McMaster method. The overall prevalence of H. contortus infection in sheep and goats was 75.7% (n=949). The overall prevalence of H. contortus infection in sheep (83.4%, n=314) was higher than in goats (71.8%, n=635) (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.40-2.79, and p≤0.001). The prevalence of H. contortus infection in female goats (74.2%) was higher than in male goats (64.3%) (OR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.09-2.36, and p=0.01). The prevalence of H. contortus infection in goats from Nyagatare was higher than in goats from Matimba (OR 3.25, 95% CI: 1.76-5.99, and p≤0.001) and from Katabagemu (OR 3.67, 95% CI: 2.04-6.59, and p≤0.001). The prevalence of H. contortus infection in goats from Karangazi was higher than in goats from Matimba (OR 4.72, 95% CI: 2.40-9.28, and p≤0.001). The overall mean monthly log (FEC) for H. contortus in sheep and goats were highest in April (18.9±0.2 and 14.05±0.1, respectively) and October (19.25± 0.2 and 13.75±0.1, respectively). Though, overall, sheep in Nyagatare district were at greater risk of H. contortus infection and goats from Nyagatare and Karangazi sectors were paradoxically at greater risk of H. contortus infection. It was also apparent that young female goats were at greater risk of H. contortus infection than young male goats. H. contortus infection is endemic in small ruminants in Nyagatare district and possibly other districts in Rwanda. Targeted selective treatment (TST) using FAMACHA with emphasis on low-lying swampy pastures and appropriate anthelmintic drugs may be the most economically viable solution in the short term. In the long term breeding of H. contortus resistant small ruminants and strategic grazing using the concept of refugia may bring about considerable relief from H. contortus infection in Nyagatare district, in particular, and Rwanda at large.