Table 3: Probiotic strains used against Ascaris suum in pig model.

Probiotics strainDose/routeMechanismsAntiparasite effectReferences

Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG)1 × 1010 CFU/day orallyInduced an increase in toll-like receptor- (TLR-) 9 and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) gene expression in AMReduced Ascaris suum-induced eosinophil activity in TBLNs[70]

Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001)1 × 1010 CFU/day orallyIncreased in IFN- expression and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine expressionDecreased the severity of allergic skin and lung responses[69]

Bifidobacterium lactis subspecies animalis (Bb12)3.5 × 1010 CFU orallyIncreased mRNA expression of genes, including IL-25, but did not affect intestinal permeabilityDid not interfere with normal expulsion of L4 from the jejunum[68]

AM: alveolar macrophages and TBLNs: tracheobronchial lymph nodes.