Table of Contents
Journal of Wind Energy
Volume 2015, Article ID 895974, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/895974
Research Article

Separated Pitch Control at Tip: Innovative Blade Design Explorations for Large MW Wind Turbine Blades

1Department of Technology Systems, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27545, USA
2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Received 26 August 2014; Accepted 22 January 2015

Academic Editor: Jianzhong Zhang

Copyright © 2015 Ranjeet Agarwala and Paul I. Ro. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Imraan, R. N. Sharma, and R. G. J. Flay, “Wind tunnel testing of a wind turbine with telescopic blades: the influence of blade extension,” Energy, vol. 53, pp. 22–32, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Agarwala and P. I. Ro, “3D analysis of lift and moment adaptation via control surface deployments on a 5 MW wind turbine blade,” Wind Engineering, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 447–468, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Peter, F. M. Silkeborg, and S. C. B. Hojbjer, “Pitch system balancing for wind turbine,” European Patent, EP2455611A2, 2012.
  4. S. Daynes and P. M. Weaver, “Design and testing of a deformable wind turbine blade control surface,” Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 21, Article ID 105019, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. K. Barlas, G. J. van der Veen, and G. A. M. van Kuik, “Model predictive control for wind turbines with distributed active flaps: incorporating inflow signals and actuator constraints,” Wind Energy, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 757–771, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. K. Barlas and G. A. M. van Kuik, “Review of state of the art in smart rotor control research for wind turbines,” Progress in Aerospace Sciences, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 1–27, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. L. Bai, X. Y. Ma, and X. Ming, “Lift enhancement of airfoil and tip flow control for wind turbine,” Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 825–836, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  8. T. Lee and Y. Y. Su, “Lift enhancement and flow structure of airfoil with joint trailing-edge flap and Gurney flap,” Experiments in Fluids, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1671–1684, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Daynes and P. M. Weaver, “A morphing trailing edge device for a wind turbine,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 691–701, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. X. Lachenal, S. Daynes, and P. M. Weaver, “Review of morphing concepts and materials for wind turbine blade applications,” Wind Energy, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 283–307, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. Houtzager, J.-W. van Wingerden, and M. Verhaegen, “Rejection of periodic wind disturbances on a smart rotor test section using lifted repetitive control,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 347–359, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Versailles, S. Ghosh, H. Duc, and C. Masson, “Preliminary assessment of wind turbine blade lift control via plasma actuation,” Wind Engineering, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 339–356, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. R. Bottalla, M. B. Bragg, J. J. Sheahan Jr., and C. M. Winkler, “Performance of an airfoil with a power-saving, tab-assisted flap system,” in Proceedings of the 29th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, June 2011. View at Scopus
  14. J. Heinz, N. N. Sørensen, and F. Zahle, “Investigation of the load reduction potential of two trailing edge flap controls using CFD,” Wind Energy, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 449–462, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Markou, P. B. Andersen, and G. C. Larsen, “Potential load reductions on megawatt turbines exposed to wakes using individual-pitch wake compensator and trailing-edge flaps,” Wind Energy, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 841–857, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. B. Andersen, L. Henriksen, M. Gaunaa, C. Bak, and T. Buhl, “Deformable trailing edge flaps for modern megawatt wind turbine controllers using strain gauge sensors,” Wind Energy, vol. 13, no. 2-3, pp. 193–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. J. Johnson, J. P. Baker, C. P. van Dam, and D. Berg, “An overview of active load control techniques for wind turbines with an emphasis on microtabs,” Wind Energy, vol. 13, no. 2-3, pp. 239–253, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. G. Wilson, D. E. Berg, M. F. Barone, J. C. Berg, B. R. Resor, and D. W. Lobitz, “Active aerodynamic blade control design for load reduction on large wind turbines,” in Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition (EWEC '09), pp. 643–678, March 2009. View at Scopus
  19. J. Jonkman, S. Butterfield, W. Musial, and G. Scott, “Definition of a 5-MW reference wind turbine for offshore system development,” Technical Report-NREL/TP-500-38060, Task No. WER5.3301, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  20. C. P. van Dam, R. Chow, J. R. Zayas, and D. E. Berg, “Computational investigations of small deploying tabs and flaps for aerodynamic load control,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 75, Article ID 012027, pp. 1–10, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. M. Georggescu, S. C. Georggescu, S. Bernard, and C. L. Cosoiu, “Comsol multiphysics versus fluent: 2d numerical simulation of the stationary flow around a blade of the achard turbine,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Vortex Dominated Flows, vol. 52, pp. 13–21, 2007.
  22. F. Zhang and D. Söffker, “Active flutter suppression of a nonlinear aeroelastic system using PI-observer,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MOVIC '08), pp. 367–376, September 2008. View at Scopus
  23. T. O'Neil and T. W. Strganac, “Aeroelastic response of a rigid wing supported by nonlinear springs,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 616–622, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. C. Fung, An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity, Wiley, 1955.
  25. R. Agarwala, Separated pitch control at tip (SePCaT): a novel blade design and associated control strategies for large MW wind turbines [Ph.D. dissertation], 2014, http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/handle/1840.16/9829.