Figure 36: (a) RHEED intensity as function of time for a BTO thin film grown at 𝑇 s u b 7 0 0 °C, p(O2) = 0.002 mbar, and 𝐹 1 . 9  J/cm2. Still in the 1 Hz regime, the growth mode changes from layer by layer growth with clear oscillations up to 150 sec., to an island growth from 150 to 450 sec. as indicated by the more and more spotty RHEED images (right). (b) AFM image of the sample after 3,000 pulses. Clearly the granular surface with BTO islands is visible as implied by the RHEED images (right).