Table of Contents
Lung Cancer International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 545601, 7 pages
Research Article

Usefulness of Ki-67, Mitoses, and Tumor Size for Predicting Metastasis in Carcinoid Tumors of the Lung: A Study of 48 Cases at a Tertiary Care Centre in Canada

1Department of Pathology, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London, ON, Canada
2Department of Pathology, University Hospital, 339 Windermere Road, London, ON, Canada N6A 5A5
3Brantford General Hospital, ON, Canada
4Pathologist assistant program, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, Canada
5University of Calgary, Canada
6Division of Respirology, University of Ottawa, Canada
7Department of Thoracic Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London, ON, Canada

Received 29 July 2015; Accepted 7 November 2015

Academic Editor: Giovanni Luca Ceresoli

Copyright © 2015 M. G. Joseph et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Evaluation of Ki-67 index in lung carcinoid tumors (LCTs) has been of interest in order to identify high risk subsets. Our objectives are (1) to evaluate the usefulness of Ki-67 index, mitoses, and tumor size in predicting metastasis and (2) to compare the Manual Conventional Method (MCM) and the Computer Assisted Image Analysis Method (CIAM) for Ki-67 calculation. Methods. We studied 48 patients with LCTs from two academic centres in Canada. For Ki-67 calculation, digital images of 5000 cells were counted using an image processing software and 2000 cells by MCM. Mitoses/10 HPF was counted. Results. We had 37 typical carcinoids (TCs) and 11 atypical carcinoids (ACs). 7/48 patients developed metastasis. There was a positive relationship between metastasis and carcinoid type () and metastasis and mitoses (≥2) (). Although not statistically significant, the mean Ki-67 index for ACs was higher than for TCs (0.95% versus 0.72%, CIAM, ). Similarly, although not statistically significant, the mean Ki-67 index for metastatic group (MG) was higher than for nonmetastatic group (NMG) (1.01% versus 0.71% by CIAM, ). However when Ki-67 index data was categorized at various levels, there is suggestion of a useful cutoff (≥0.50%) to predict metastasis (, CIAM). A significantly higher proportion of patients with mitosis ≥2 and Ki-67 index ≥0.50% had metastasis () compared to other patients. Similarly patients with tumor size ≥3 cm and Ki-67 ≥0.50% had a greater percentage of metastases than others (). Although there was a strong correlation between two (MCM versus CIAM) counting methods (, ), overall the calculated Ki-67 index was slightly higher by MCM (range 0 to 6.4, mean 1.5) compared to CIAM (range 0 to 2.9, mean 0.75). Conclusion. This study confirms that mitoses ≥2 is a powerful predictor of metastasis in LCTs. Although this is a small sample size, there is suggestion that analysis of Ki-67 index along with mitoses and tumor size may be a useful adjunct for predicting metastasis in LCTs.