Table of Contents
Leukemia Research and Treatment
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 976567, 8 pages
Review Article

Molecularly Targeted Therapies in Multiple Myeloma

Cancer Biology Division, Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, 4511 Forest Park Avenue, Room 3103, Saint Louis, MO 63108, USA

Received 4 March 2014; Revised 4 April 2014; Accepted 5 April 2014; Published 16 April 2014

Academic Editor: Massimo Breccia

Copyright © 2014 Pilar de la Puente et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy that remains incurable because most patients will eventually relapse or become refractory to the treatments. Although the treatments have improved, the major problem in MM is the resistance to therapy. Novel agents are currently in development for the treatment of relapsed/refractory MM, including immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, cell signaling targeted therapies, and strategies targeting the tumor microenvironment. We have previously reviewed in detail the contemporary immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies therapies for MM. Therefore, in this review, we focused on the role of molecular targeted therapies in the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, including cell signaling targeted therapies (HDAC, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, p38 MAPK, Hsp90, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, and cell cycle) and strategies targeting the tumor microenvironment (hypoxia, angiogenesis, integrins, CD44, CXCR4, and selectins). Although these novel agents have improved the therapeutic outcomes for MM patients, further development of new therapeutic agents is warranted.