Table of Contents
Metal-Based Drugs
Volume 7 (2000), Issue 2, Pages 77-88
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/MBD.2000.77

Calcium(II)3 (3,5-Diisopropylsalicylate)6(H2O)6 Activates Nitric Oxide Synthase: An Accounting for its Action in Decreasing Platelet Aggregation

Division of Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University for Arkansas for Medical Sciences Campus, Little Rock 72205, Arkansas, USA

Received 22 November 1999; Accepted 12 February 2000

Copyright © 2000 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purposes of these studies were first; to determine whether or not Calcium(II)3 (3,5- diisopropylsalicylate)6(H2O)6 [Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6], a lipophilic calcium complex, could decrease activated-platelet aggregation, and second; to determine whether or not it is plausible that Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 decreases activated-platelet aggregation by facilitating the synthesis of Nitric Oxide (NO) by Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS). The influence of Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 on the initial rate of activated-platelet aggregation was determined by measuring the decrease in rate of increase in transmission at 550 nm for a suspension of Thrombin-CaCl2 activated platelets following the addition of 0, 50, 100, 250, or 500 μM Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6. To establish that the Ca(lI)3(3,5- DIPS)6-mediated decrease in aggregation was due to activation of NOS, the effect of ʟ-NMMA, an inhibitor of NOS, on the inhibition of platelet aggregation by Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 was determined using a suspension of activated platelets contaimng 0 or 250 μM Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 without or with 1 mM ʟ-NMMA. An in vitro Bovine Brain NOS reaction mixture, containing CaCl2 for the activation of Phosphodiesterase-3' ,5'-Cyclic Nucleotide Activator required for the activation of NOS, was used to determine whether or not Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 could be used as a substitute for the addition of Ca. The decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, lambda maximum for NADPH, was measured to determine NOS activity following the addition of NOS to the complete reaction mixture containing either CaCl2, Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6, or neither Ca compound. Increasing the concentration of Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 caused a concentration related decrease in activated platelet aggregation. The addition of ʟ-NMMA to activated platelets, in the absence of Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6, caused a 129% increase in initial rate of platelet aggregation. The initial rate of platelet aggregation decreased 74% with the addition of 250 μM Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 and the addition of ʟ-NMMA plus 250 μM Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 caused a 197% decrease in initial rate of aggregation compared to the initial rate observed width the presence of 1 mM ʟ-NMMA alone. There was only a small, 27%, increase in initial rate of 0.4 mM NADPH oxidation when 0.9 mM CaCl2 was added to the NOS reaction mixture in comparison to the initial rate of NADPH oxidation with no addition of CaCI2. Addition of an equivalent amount of Ca in the form of Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6, 333 μM, caused a 37% increase in initial rate of NADPH oxidation compared to the addition of 0.9 mM CaCl2. Addition of increasing concentrations of ʟ-NMMA plus 0.9 mM CaCl2 or 333 μM Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 to the NOS reaction mixture caused a concentration related increase in initial rate of NADPH oxidation. Addition of ʟ-NMMA while expected to decrease NADPH oxidation actually increased the rate of NADPH oxidation. Additions of 133 μM or 267 μM Ca(II)3(3,5- DIPS)6 also caused concentration related increases in initial rate of NADPH oxidation in the presence of 113 μM ʟ-NMMA. However, the addition of 533 μM Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 caused a dramatic decrease in initial rate of NADPH oxidation by NOS. It is concluded that: 1) Ca(II)3(3,5- DIPS)6 activates platelet NOS in preventing platelet aggregation, 2) in vitro NOS activity can be observed spectrophotometrically by following the consumption of NADPH as a decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, 3) Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 plays a role in enhancing Bovine Brain NOS activity resulting in an increased rate of NADPH oxidation by NOS, 4) Ca(II)3(3,5-DIPS)6 is a useful form of Ca in activating NOS and superior to CaCl2 with regard to the facilitation of a NADPH oxidation, and 5) ʟ-NMMA stimulates Bovine Brain NOS activity rather than causing an inhibition of this enzyme and must serve as a reducible substrate for Bovine Brain NOS.