Table of Contents
Molecular Biology International
Volume 2012, Article ID 401965, 17 pages
Review Article

The Continuing Evolution of HIV-1 Therapy: Identification and Development of Novel Antiretroviral Agents Targeting Viral and Cellular Targets

Anti-Infective Research Department, ImQuest BioSciences, Inc., 7340 Executive Way, Suite R, Frederick, MD 21704, USA

Received 9 January 2012; Revised 24 April 2012; Accepted 11 May 2012

Academic Editor: Gilda Tachedjian

Copyright © 2012 Tracy L. Hartman and Robert W. Buckheit Jr. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


During the past three decades, over thirty-five anti-HIV-1 therapies have been developed for use in humans and the progression from monotherapeutic treatment regimens to today’s highly active combination antiretroviral therapies has had a dramatic impact on disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals. In spite of the success of AIDS therapies and the existence of inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease, entry and fusion, and integrase, HIV-1 therapies still have a variety of problems which require continued development efforts to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity, while making drugs that can be used throughout both the developed and developing world, in pediatric populations, and in pregnant women. Highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAARTs) have significantly delayed the progression to AIDS, and in the developed world HIV-1-infected individuals might be expected to live normal life spans while on lifelong therapies. However, the difficult treatment regimens, the presence of class-specific drug toxicities, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus isolates highlight the fact that improvements in our therapeutic regimens and the identification of new and novel viral and cellular targets for therapy are still necessary. Antiretroviral therapeutic strategies and targets continue to be explored, and the development of increasingly potent molecules within existing classes of drugs and the development of novel strategies are ongoing.