Table of Contents
Molecular Biology International
Volume 2013, Article ID 987549, 19 pages
Review Article

Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach

1Institute for Transcultural Health Sciences, European University Viadrina, Grosse Scharrn Strasse 59, 15230 Frankfurt (Oder), Germany
2Retired Scientist from Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare (INFN), via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy

Received 15 May 2013; Accepted 4 August 2013

Academic Editor: Alessandro Desideri

Copyright © 2013 Marco Bischof and Emilio Del Giudice. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Intermolecular interactions within living organisms have been found to occur not as individual independent events but as a part of a collective array of interconnected events. The problem of the emergence of this collective dynamics and of the correlated biocommunication therefore arises. In the present paper we review the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of microscopic units (atoms/molecules) has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field. Experimental corroboration of this scheme is presented. Some consequences for future biological developments are discussed.