Table of Contents
Molecular Biology International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3105478, 11 pages
Research Article

Cloning, Sequencing, and the Expression of the Elusive Sarcomeric TPM4α Isoform in Humans

Department of Medicine, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA

Received 31 May 2016; Revised 22 July 2016; Accepted 10 August 2016

Academic Editor: József Szeberényi

Copyright © 2016 Dipak K. Dube et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In mammals, tropomyosin is encoded by four known TPM genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) each of which can generate a number of TPM isoforms via alternative splicing and/or using alternate promoters. In humans, the sarcomeric isoform(s) of each of the TPM genes, except for the TPM4, have been known for a long time. Recently, on the basis of computational analyses of the human genome sequence, the predicted sequence of TPM4α has been posted in GenBank. We designed primer-pairs for RT-PCR and showed the expression of the transcripts of TPM4α and a novel isoform TPM4δ in human heart and skeletal muscle. qRT-PCR shows that the relative expression of TPM4α and TPM4δ is higher in human cardiac muscle. Western blot analyses using CH1 monoclonal antibodies show the absence of the expression of TPM4δ protein (~28 kDa) in human heart muscle. 2D western blot analyses with the same antibody show the expression of at least nine distinct tropomyosin molecules with a mass ~32 kD and above in adult heart. By Mass spectrometry, we determined the amino acid sequences of the extracted proteins from these spots. Spot “G” reveals the putative expression of TPM4α along with TPM1α protein in human adult heart.