Table of Contents
Molecular Biology International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4732791, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4732791
Research Article

Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli

1Microbiology Division, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, India
2Entomology Division, Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam 784001, India

Received 30 September 2015; Accepted 12 January 2016

Academic Editor: Surjit Kaila S. Srai

Copyright © 2016 Nagendra Suryanarayana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Mikesell, B. E. Ivins, J. D. Ristroph, and T. M. Dreier, “Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin production in Bacillus anthracis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 371–376, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. D. Green, L. Battisti, T. M. Koehler, C. B. Thorne, and B. E. Ivins, “Demonstration of a capsule plasmid in Bacillus anthracis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 291–297, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. A. T. Young and R. J. Collier, “Anthrax toxin: receptor binding, internalization, pore formation, and translocation,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 76, pp. 243–265, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Mogridge, K. Cunningham, D. B. Lacy, M. Mourez, and R. J. Collier, “The lethal and edema factors of anthrax toxin bind only to oligomeric forms of the protective antigen,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 7045–7048, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. H. Leppla, “Anthrax toxin edema factor: a bacterial adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP concentrations of eukaryotic cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 79, no. 10, pp. 3162–3166, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  6. N. S. Deusbery, C. P. Webb, S. H. Leppla et al., “Proteolytic inactivation of MAP-kinase-kinase by anthrax lethal factor,” Science, vol. 280, no. 5364, pp. 734–737, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. C. Petosa, R. J. Collier, K. R. Klimpel, S. H. Leppla, and R. C. Liddington, “Crystal structure of the anthrax toxin protective antigen,” Nature, vol. 385, no. 6619, pp. 833–838, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. A. Bradley, J. Mogridge, M. Mourez, R. J. Collier, and J. A. T. Young, “Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6860, pp. 225–229, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. M. Scobie, G. J. A. Rainey, K. A. Bradley, and J. A. T. Young, “Human capillary morphogenesis protein 2 functions as an anthrax toxin receptor,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 5170–5174, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. R. Klimpel, S. S. Molloy, G. Thomas, and S. H. Leppla, “Anthrax toxin protective antigen is activated by a cell surface protease with the sequence specificity and catalytic properties of furin,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 89, no. 21, pp. 10277–10281, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Abrami, S. Liu, P. Cosson, S. H. Leppla, and F. G. van der Goot, “Anthrax toxin triggers endocytosis of its receptor via lipid raft mediated clathrin dependent process,” Journal of Chemical Biology, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 321–328, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. S. E. Szarowicz, R. L. During, W. Li, C. P. Quinn, W.-J. Tang, and F. S. Southwick, “Bacillus anthracis edema toxin impairs neutrophil actin based motility,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 2455–2464, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. M. Friedlander, “Macrophages are sensitive to anthrax lethal toxins through an acid dependent process,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 261, no. 16, pp. 7123–7126, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. M. Friedlander, R. Bhatnagar, S. H. Leppla, L. Johnson, and Y. Singh, “Characterization of macrophage sensitivity and resistance to anthrax lethal toxin,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 245–252, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. C. Hanna, S. Kochi, and R. J. Collier, “Biochemical and physiological changes induced by anthrax lethal toxin in J774 macrophage-like cells,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 1269–1277, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Z. L. Newman, D. Crown, S. H. Leppla, and M. Moayeri, “Anthrax lethal toxin activates the inflammasome in sensitive rat macrophages,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 398, no. 4, pp. 785–789, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. E. Ivins, J. W. Ezzell Jr., J. Jemski, K. W. Hedlund, J. D. Ristroph, and S. H. Leppla, “Immunization studies with attenuated strains of Bacillus anthracis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 454–458, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Ivins, P. F. Fellows, and G. O. Nelson, “Efficacy of standard human anthrax vaccine against Bacillus anthracis spore challenge in guinea pigs,” Vaccine, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 872–874, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. P. C. B. Turnbull, “Anthrax vaccines: past, present and future,” Vaccine, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 533–539, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. N. Brey, “Molecular basis for improved anthrax vaccines,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1266–1292, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. W. J. Baillie, “Past, imminent and future human medical countermeasures for anthrax,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 594–606, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. G. Bouzianas, “Potential biological targets of Bacillus anthracis in anti-infective approaches against the threat of bioterrorism,” Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 665–684, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. Chauhan, A. Singh, S. M. Waheed, S. Singh, and R. Bhatnagar, “Constitutive expression of protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis in Escherichia coil,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 283, no. 2, pp. 308–315, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. M. Coulson, M. Fulop, and R. W. Titball, “Bacillus anthracis protective antigen, expressed in Salmonella typhimurium SL 3261, affords protection against anthrax spore challenge,” Vaccine, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 1395–1401, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. M. Ramirez, S. H. Leppla, R. Schneerson, and J. Shiloach, “Production, recovery and immunogenicity of the protective antigen from a recombinant strain of Bacillus anthracis,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 232–238, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G.-E. Rhie, Y.-M. Park, J.-H. Chun, C.-K. Yoo, W.-K. Seong, and H.-B. Oh, “Expression and secretion of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis in Bacillus brevis,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 331–339, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G.-E. Rhie, Y.-M. Park, J.-S. Han, J.-Y. Yu, W.-K. Seong, and H.-B. Oh, “Efficacy of non-toxic deletion mutants of protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 341–347, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H.-H. Chang, M.-F. Tsai, C.-P. Chung et al., “Single step purification of recombinant anthrax lethal factor from periplasm of Escherichia coli,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 277–285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. M. Singh and A. K. Panda, “Solubilization and refolding of bacterial inclusion body proteins,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 303–310, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Yamaguchi and M. Miyazaki, “Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies,” Biomolecules, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 235–251, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. S. Welkos, S. Little, A. Friedlander, D. Fritz, and P. Fellows, “The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores,” Microbiology, vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 1677–1685, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. W. Studier and B. A. Moffatt, “Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 113–130, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Betts and J. King, “There's a right way and a wrong way: in vivo and in vitro folding, misfolding and subunit assembly of the P22 tailspike,” Cell, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. R131–R139, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  34. K. Terpe, “Overview of bacterial expression systems for heterologous protein production: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 211–222, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Gupta, S. M. Waheed, and R. Bhatnagar, “Expression and purification of the recombinant protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis,” Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 369–376, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Sharma, P. K. Swain, A. P. Chopra, V. K. Chaudhary, and Y. Singh, “Expression and purification of anthrax toxin protective antigen from Escherichia coli,” Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 33–38, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Miller, B. W. McBride, R. J. Manchee, P. Moore, and L. W. J. Baillie, “Production and purification of recombinant protective antigen and protective efficacy against Bacillus anthracis,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus