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Malaria Research and Treatment
Volume 2014, Article ID 451065, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/451065
Review Article

Exploiting Unique Structural and Functional Properties of Malarial Glycolytic Enzymes for Antimalarial Drug Development

1Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India
2Department of Education and Research, Artemis Health Institute, Sector 51, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001, India
3Department of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal 462066, India

Received 14 August 2014; Accepted 30 October 2014; Published 17 December 2014

Academic Editor: Neena Valecha

Copyright © 2014 Asrar Alam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Metabolic enzymes have been known to carry out a variety of functions besides their normal housekeeping roles known as “moonlighting functions.” These functionalities arise from structural changes induced by posttranslational modifications and/or binding of interacting proteins. Glycolysis is the sole source of energy generation for malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hence a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention. Crystal structures of several P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes have been solved, revealing that they exhibit unique structural differences from the respective host enzymes, which could be exploited for their selective targeting. In addition, these enzymes carry out many parasite-specific functions, which could be of potential interest to control parasite development and transmission. This review focuses on the moonlighting functions of P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes and unique structural differences and functional features of the parasite enzymes, which could be exploited for therapeutic and transmission blocking interventions against malaria.