Neuroscience Journal / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

rTMS as a Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease with and without Comorbidity of Depression: A Review

Table 1

Comparison of rTMS protocols for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

Paper titleNumber of participantsDepressionParticipant age (Mean ± SD)Level of dementia (AD)Stimulation siteFrequencyIntensityLength of trial

Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on action naming in patients With Alzheimer's disease [9]15
Excluded Mild-moderate cognitive decline, probable ADRight and left DLPFC, sham20 Hz90%

Transcranial magnetic stimulation improves naming in Alzheimer's disease patients at different stages of cognitive decline [10]24
ExcludedModerate-severe AD: 77.6 ± 5.8
Mild AD: 75 ± 6.2
12 moderate-severe AD, 12 mild ADRight and left DLPFC, sham20 Hz90%

Improved language performance in Alzheimer's disease following brain stimulation [11]10 (5 real-real stimulation,
5 placebo-real stimulation)
Excluded74.4 ± 3.8Probable moderate ADLeft DLPFC20 Hz100%2 weeks (5/week) real or placebo, followed by 2 weeks all real

Beneficial effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with cognitive training for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a proof of concept study [13]8
6/8 had history of depression75.4 ± 4.4Probable early-moderate AD (Clinical Dementia Rating of 1)6 regions (3 per day, every other day)
(i) Broca, Wernicke and right DLPFC
(ii) left DLPFC and right and left parietal somatosensory association cortex (pSAC)
10 Hz90% for Broca and DLPFC, 110% for Wernicke and pSAC6 weeks (5/week), followed by maintenance (2/week) for 3 months

Effects of low versus high frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional excitability in Alzheimer’s dementia [12]45 (15 HF stimulation, 15 LF stimulation, 15 sham stimulation)
Depression not excluded. Assessment of patient depression improved with rTMS.68.4
(SD not specified)
32 probable mild-moderate AD, 13 probable severe AD Right and left DLPFC (right, then left hemisphere consecutively stimulated)HF: 20 Hz
LF: 1 Hz
HF: 90%
LF: 100%
5 days