Table of Contents Author Guidelines
Neuroscience Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 585237, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/585237
Review Article

Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

1Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, 3200 College Avenue, Davie, FL 33314, USA
2Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
3Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
4Florida Atlantic University, Davie, FL, USA

Received 26 August 2014; Accepted 25 November 2014; Published 18 December 2014

Academic Editor: J. Eric Schmitt

Copyright © 2014 Mónica Rosselli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Martinet, Éléments de Linguistique Générale, Armand Colin, Paris, France, 1960.
  2. D. Crystal, Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, Wiley-Blackwell, New York, NY, USA, 6th edition, 2011.
  3. A. Ardila, “There are two different language systems in the brain,” Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, vol. 1, pp. 23–36, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. Bickerton, “Language evolution: a brief guide for linguists,” Lingua, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 510–526, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Chomsky, Rules and Representations, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. A. Ardila, “Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain,” Physics of Life Reviews, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 198–214, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P.-Y. Hervé, L. Zago, L. Petit, B. Mazoyer, and N. Tzourio-Mazoyer, “Trends in Cognitive Sciences,” Trends in cognitive sciences, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 69–80, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. J. DeCasper and W. P. Fifer, “Of human bonding: newborns prefer their mothers' voices,” Science, vol. 208, no. 4448, pp. 1174–1176, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Slater, Perceptual Development: Visual, Auditory, and Speech Perception in Infancy, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 1998.
  10. M. Hiscock and M. Kinsbourne, “Phylogeny and ontogeny of cerebral lateralization,” in Brain Asymmetry, R. J. Davidson and K. Hugdahl, Eds., MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. Dehaene-Lambertz, S. Dehaene, and L. Hertz-Pannier, “Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants,” Science, vol. 298, no. 5600, pp. 2013–2015, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Dick, R. Leech, and F. Richardson, “The neuropsychology of language development,” in Child Neuropsychology : Concepts, Theory and Practice, J. Reed and J. Warner-Rogers, Eds., pp. 139–182, Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  13. A. D. Friederici, J. Brauer, and G. Lohmann, “Maturation of the language network: from inter- to intrahemispheric connectivities,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID e20726, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Everts, K. Lidzba, M. Wilke et al., “Strengthening of laterality of verbal and visuospatial functions during childhood and adolescence,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 473–483, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. E. Blumstein and D. Amso, “Dynamic functional organization of language: insights from functional neuroimaging,” Perspectives on Psychological Science, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 44–48, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. J. Kelly, P. C. Quinn, A. M. Slater, K. Lee, L. Ge, and O. Pascalis, “The other-race effect develops during infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing,” Psychological Science, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1084–1089, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. K. Kuhl, B. T. Conboy, S. Coffey-Corina, D. Padden, M. Rivera-Gaxiola, and T. Nelson, “Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory expanded (NLM-e),” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 363, no. 1493, pp. 979–1000, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. F. Werker and R. C. Tees, “Cross-language speech perception: evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 121–133, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. L. Faulkner, L. K. Low, and H.-J. Cheng, “Axon Pruning in the developing vertebrate hippocampus,” Developmental Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 1-2, pp. 6–13, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. J. Lewkowicz and A. A. Ghazanfar, “Paradoxical psychological functioning in early childhood development,” in The Paradoxical Brain, N. Kapur, Ed., pp. 110–129, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  21. E. K. Sander, “When are speech sounds learned?” Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Hoff, Language Development, Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, Boston, Mass, USA, 2009.
  23. L. Bedore, “The acquisition of Spanish,” in Language Acquisition Across North America: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Linguistic Perspectives, O. L. Taylor and L. Leonard, Eds., pp. 157–208, Singular Publishing Group, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. B. Smit, L. Hand, J. J. Freilinger, J. E. Bernthal, and A. Bird, “The Iowa articulation norms project and its Nebraska replication,” Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 779–798, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. M. Vihman, Phonological Development. The Origins of Language in the Child, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 1996.
  26. K. R. Gibson and A. C. Petersen, Eds., Brain Maturation and Cognitive Development, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
  27. M. Vigneau, V. Beaucousin, P. Y. Hervé et al., “Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: phonology, semantics, and sentence processing,” NeuroImage, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1414–1432, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Fenson, E. Bates, P. Dale, J. Goodman, J. S. Reznick, and D. Thal, “Measuring variability in early child language: don't shoot the messenger,” Child Development, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 323–328, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Jackson-Maldonado, V. A. Marchman, and L. C. H. Fernald, “Short-form versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates communicative development inventories,” Applied Psycholinguistics, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 837–868, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. Bates and J. C. Goodman, “On the inseparability of grammar and the lexicon: evidence form acquisition, aphasia and real-time processing,” Language and Cognitive Processes, vol. 12, no. 5-6, pp. 507–584, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Fenson, P. S. Dale, J. S. Reznick, E. Bates, D. J. Thal, and S. J. Pethick, “Variability in early communicative development,” Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1–185, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Lorraine, Vocabulary Development: Super Duper Handouts Number 149, Super Duper Publications, Greenville, SC, USA, 2008.
  33. E. Courchesne and K. Pierce, “Brain overgrowth in autism during a critical time in development: Implications for frontal pyramidal neuron and interneuron development and connectivity,” International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, vol. 23, no. 2-3, pp. 153–170, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Su, C. C. Kuan, K. Kaga, M. Sano, and K. Mima, “Myelination progression in language-correlated regions in brain of normal children determined by quantitative MRI assessment,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 72, no. 12, pp. 1751–1763, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Pujol, C. Soriano-Mas, H. Ortiz, N. Sebastián-Gallés, J. M. Losilla, and J. Deus, “Myelination of language-related areas in the developing brain,” Neurology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 339–343, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. Leroy, H. Glasel, J. Dubois et al., “Early maturation of the linguistic dorsal pathway in human infants,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1500–1506, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Gervain, F. Macagno, S. Cogoi, M. Peña, and J. Mehler, “The neonate brain detects speech structure,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 37, pp. 14222–14227, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Tomasello, Constructing a Language: A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition, Harvard University Press, Boston, Mass, USA, 2003.
  39. M. L. Rice, F. Smolik, D. Perpich, T. Thompson, N. Rytting, and M. Blossom, “Mean length of utterance levels in 6-month intervals for children 3 to 9 years with and without language impairments,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 333–349, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. R. Brassard and A. E. Boehm, Preschool Assessment: Principles and Practices, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
  41. S. C. Nuñez, M. Dapretto, T. Katzir et al., “fMRI of syntactic processing in typically developing children: structural correlates in the inferior frontal gyrus,” Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 313–323, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. S. Kadis, E. W. Pang, T. Mills, M. J. Taylor, M. P. McAndrews, and M. L. Smith, “Characterizing the normal developmental trajectory of expressive language lateralization using magnetoencephalography,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 896–904, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Riva, F. Nichelli, and M. Devoti, “Developmental aspects of verbal fluency and confrontation naming in children,” Brain and Language, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 267–284, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Reed and J. Warner-Rogers, Eds., Child Neuropsychology: Concepts, Theory, and Practice, Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK, 2008.
  45. R. K. Lenroot and J. N. Giedd, “Brain development in children and adolescents: insights from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 718–729, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. N. Giedd and J. L. Rapoport, “Structural MRI of pediatric brain development: what have we learned and where are we going?” Neuron, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 728–734, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. Paus, A. Zijdenbos, K. Worsley et al., “Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study,” Science, vol. 283, no. 5409, pp. 1908–1911, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Wilke, K. Lidzba, and I. Krägeloh-Mann, “Combined functional and causal connectivity analyses of language networks in children: a feasibility study,” Brain and Language, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. Kochunov, D. E. Williamson, J. Lancaster et al., “Fractional anisotropy of water diffusion in cerebral white matter across the lifespan,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 9–20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. W. Toga, P. M. Thompson, and E. R. Sowell, “Mapping brain maturation,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 148–159, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. E. R. Sowell, D. A. Trauner, A. Gamst, and T. L. Jernigan, “Development of cortical and subcortical brain structures in childhood and adolescence: a structural MRI study,” Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 4–16, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Giorgio, K. E. Watkins, G. Douaud et al., “Changes in white matter microstructure during adolescence,” NeuroImage, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Bava, R. Thayer, J. Jacobus, M. Ward, T. L. Jernigan, and S. F. Tapert, “Longitudinal characterization of white matter maturation during adolescence,” Brain Research, vol. 1327, pp. 38–46, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. V. J. Schmithorst and W. Yuan, “White matter development during adolescence as shown by diffusion MRI,” Brain and Cognition, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 16–25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. K. Lidzba, E. Schwilling, W. Grodd, I. Krägeloh-Mann, and M. Wilke, “Language comprehension vs. language production: age effects on fMRI activation,” Brain and Language, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. Kavé, “The development of naming and word fluency: evidence from Hebrew-speaking children between ages 8 and 17,” Developmental Neuropsychology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 493–508, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Matute, M. Rosselli, A. Ardila, and G. Morales, “Verbal and non-verbal fluency in six to 15-year-old Spanish-speaking children,” Developmental Neuropsychology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 647–660, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. K. Holland, E. Plante, A. W. Byars, R. H. Strawsburg, V. J. Schmithorst, and W. S. Ball Jr., “Normal fMRI brain activation patterns in children performing a verb generation task,” NeuroImage, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 837–843, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. Sauzéon, P. Lestage, C. Raboutet, B. N'Kaoua, and B. Claverie, “Verbal fluency output in children aged 7–16 as a function of the production criterion: qualitative analysis of clustering, switching processes, and semantic network exploitation,” Brain and Language, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 192–202, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. Koren, O. Kofman, and A. Berger, “Analysis of word clustering in verbal fluency of school-aged children,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1087–1104, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. K. Lenroot, N. Gogtay, D. K. Greenstein et al., “Sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories during childhood and adolescence,” NeuroImage, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1065–1073, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. N. Giedd, J. Blumenthal, N. O. Jeffries et al., “Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 861–863, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. N. Giedd, F. M. Lalonde, M. J. Celano et al., “Anatomical brain magnetic resonance imaging of typically developing children and adolescents,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 465–470, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. D. Fields and B. Stevens-Graham, “New insights into neuron-glia communication,” Science, vol. 298, no. 5593, pp. 556–562, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. Lebel and C. Beaulieu, “Longitudinal development of human brain wiring continues from childhood into adulthood,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 30, pp. 10937–10947, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. T. Brown, H. M. Lugar, R. S. Coalson, F. M. Miezin, S. E. Petersen, and B. L. Schlaggar, “Developmental changes in human cerebral functional organization for word generation,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 275–290, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. P. Szaflarski, V. J. Schmithorst, M. Altaye et al., “A longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of language development in children 5 to 11 years old,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 796–807, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. E. Desmond, J. M. Sum, A. D. Wagner et al., “Functional MRI measurement of language Lateralization in Wada-tested patients,” Brain, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 1411–1419, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. V. Ressel, M. Wilke, K. Lidzba, W. Lutzenberger, and I. Krägeloh-Mann, “Increases in language lateralization in normal children as observed using magnetoencephalography,” Brain and Language, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 167–176, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. S. Allen, M. F. Richey, Y. M. Chai, and R. A. Gorski, “Sex differences in the corpus callosum of the living human being,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 933–942, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. P. M. Thompson, J. N. Gledd, R. P. Woods, D. MacDonald, A. C. Evans, and A. W. Toga, “Growth patterns in the developing brain detected by using continuum mechanical tensor maps,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6774, pp. 190–193, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. Westerhausen, E. Luders, K. Specht et al., “Structural and functional reorganization of the corpus callosum between the age of 6 and 8 years,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1012–1017, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. S. Brown, “A review of the tip-of-the-tongue experience,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 204–223, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Ardila, “Normal aging increases cognitive heterogeneity,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1003–1011, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. D. Wechsler, WAIS-III: Administration and Scoring Manual, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1997.
  76. C. Verhaegen and M. Poncelet, “Changes in naming and semantic abilities with aging from 50 to 90 years,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 119–126, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Wingfield and M. Grossman, “Language and the aging brain: patterns of neural compensation revealed by functional brain imaging,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 2830–2839, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. P. Szaflarski, S. K. Holland, V. J. Schmithorst, and A. W. Byars, “fMRI study of language lateralization in children and adults,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 202–212, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. Cabeza, N. D. Anderson, J. K. Locantore, and A. R. McIntosh, “Aging gracefully: compensatory brain activity in high-performing older adults,” NeuroImage, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1394–1402, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. R. Cabeza, “Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: the HAROLD model,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 85–100, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. N. A. Dennis, S. M. Hayes, S. E. Prince, D. J. Madden, S. A. Huettel, and R. Cabeza, “Effects of aging on the neural correlates of successful item and source memory encoding,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 791–808, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. Cabeza and N. A. Dennis, “Frontal lobes and aging: deterioration and compensation,” in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function, D. T. Stuss and R. T. Knight, Eds., Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  83. E. A. Maguire and C. D. Frith, “Aging affects the engagement of the hippocampus during autobiographical memory retrieval,” Brain, vol. 126, no. 7, pp. 1511–1523, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Ardila and M. Rosselli, “Neuropsychological characteristics of normal aging,” Developmental Neuropsychology, vol. 5, pp. 307–320, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. D. Burke, J. Worthley, and J. Martin, “I'll never forget what's-her-name: aging and the tip of the tongue experience in everyday life,” in Practical Aspects of Memory: Current Research and Theory, M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, and J. N. Sykes, Eds., pp. 113–118, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  86. A. J. Mackay, L. T. Connor, M. L. Albert, and L. K. Obler, “Noun and verb retrieval in healthy aging,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 764–770, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. E. LaBarge, D. Edwards, and J. W. Knesevich, “Performance of normal elderly on the Boston naming test,” Brain and Language, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 380–384, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. C. Villardita, S. Cultrera, V. Cupone, and R. Mejia, “Neuropsychological test performance and normal aging,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 311–319, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. P. S. Kent and M. A. Luszcz, “A review of the Boston Naming Test and multiple-occasion normative data for older adults on 15-item versions,” The Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 555–574, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. T. Connor, A. Spiro III, L. K. Obler, and M. L. Albert, “Change in object naming ability during adulthood,” Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 203–209, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. R. F. Zec, N. R. Burkett, S. J. Markwell, and D. L. Larsen, “A cross-sectional study of the effects of age, education, and gender on the Boston Naming Test,” Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 587–616, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. Weintraub, D. H. Powell, and D. K. Whitla, “Successful cognitive aging: individual differences among physicians on a computerized test of mental state,” The Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 15–34, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. R. Au, P. Joung, M. Nicholas, L. K. Obler, R. Kass, and M. L. Albert, “Naming ability across the adult life span,” Aging and Cognition, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 300–311, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. D. Lezak, D. B. Howieson, E. D. Bigler, and D. Tranel, Neuropsychological Assessment, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 2012.
  95. P. P. M. Hurks, D. Schrans, C. Meijs, R. Wassenberg, F. J. M. Feron, and J. Jolles, “Developmental changes in semantic verbal fluency: analyses of word productivity as a function of time, clustering, and switching,” Child Neuropsychology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 366–387, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. L. K. Obler, E. Rykhlevskaia, D. Schnyer et al., “Bilateral brain regions associated with naming in older adults,” Brain and Language, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 113–123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. R. Schlösser, M. Hutchinson, S. Joseffer et al., “Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity in a verbal fluency task,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 492–498, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. Abrahams, L. H. Goldstein, A. Simmons et al., “Functional magnetic resonance imaging of verbal fluency and confrontation naming using compressed image acquisition to permit overt responses,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 29–40, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. K. Amunts, A. Schleicher, and K. Zilles, “Outstanding language competence and cytoarchitecture in Broca's speech region,” Brain and Language, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 346–353, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. M. Meinzer, T. Flaisch, L. Wilser et al., “Neural signatures of semantic and phonemic fluency in young and old adults,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2007–2018, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. B. Bernal and J. Perdomo, 2014, http://www.fmriconsulting.com/brodmann/Introduction.html.
  102. D. F. Benson and A. Ardila, Aphasia: A Clinical Perspective, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  103. N. F. Dronkers, “A new brain region for coordinating speech articulation,” Nature, vol. 384, no. 6605, pp. 159–161, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. Berthier, Transcortical Aphasias, Psychology Press, Hove, UK, 1999.
  105. E. Fedorenko, M. K. Behr, and N. Kanwisher, “Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 39, pp. 16428–16433, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. L. A. Burton, D. Henninger, and J. Hafetz, “Gender differences in relations of mental rotation, verbal fluency, and SAT scores to finger length ratios as hormonal indexes,” Developmental Neuropsychology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 493–505, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. E. M. Weiss, G. Kemmler, E. A. Deisenhammer, W. W. Fleischhacker, and M. Delazer, “Sex differences in cognitive functions,” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 863–875, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. E. Berglund, M. Eriksson, and M. Westerlund, “Communicative skills in relation to gender, birth order, childcare and socioeconomic status in 18-month-old children,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 485–491, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. S. Pinker, The Stuff of Thought, Allen Lane, London, UK, 2007.
  110. I. E. Sommer, A. Aleman, M. Somers, M. P. Boks, and R. S. Kahn, “Sex differences in handedness, asymmetry of the planum temporale and functional language lateralization,” Brain Research, vol. 1206, pp. 76–88, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. J. S. Hyde and M. C. Linn, “Gender differences in verbal ability: a meta-analysis,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 53–69, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. Wallentin, “Putative sex differences in verbal abilities and language cortex: a critical review,” Brain and Language, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 175–183, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. A. Ardila, M. Rosselli, E. Matute, and O. Inozemtseva, “Gender differences in cognitive development,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 984–990, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. R. C. Gur, B. I. Turetsky, M. Matsui et al., “Sex differences in brain gray and white matter in healthy young adults: correlations with cognitive performance,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 4065–4072, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. R. A. Kanaan, M. Allin, M. Picchioni et al., “Gender differences in white matter microstructure,” PloS ONE, vol. 7, no. 6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. L. Tian, J. Wang, C. Yan, and Y. He, “Hemisphere- and gender-related differences in small-world brain networks: a resting-state functional MRI study,” NeuroImage, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 191–202, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. X. Hua, A. D. Leow, J. G. Levitt, R. Caplan, P. M. Thompson, and A. W. Toga, “Detecting brain growth patterns in normal children using tensor-based morphometry,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 209–219, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. E. R. Sowell, P. M. Thompson, C. J. Holmes, R. Batth, T. L. Jernigan, and A. W. Toga, “Localizing age-related changes in brain structure between childhood and adolescence using statistical parametric mapping,” NeuroImage, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 587–597, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. M. D. de Bellis, M. S. Keshavan, S. R. Beers et al., “Sex differences in brain maturation during childhood and adolescence,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 552–557, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. M. Wilke, I. Krägeloh-Mann, and S. K. Holland, “Global and local development of gray and white matter volume in normal children and adolescents,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 178, no. 3, pp. 296–307, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. A. Ardila, P. H. Bertolucci, L. W. Braga et al., “Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 689–712, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. E. Hoff, “Causes and consequences of SES-related differences in parent-to-child speech,” in Socioeconomic Status, Parenting and Child Development, M. H. Bornstein and R. H. Bradley, Eds., pp. 145–160, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  123. W. P. Robinson, “Social factors and language development in primary school children,” in Language Acquisition: Models and Methods, R. Huxley and E. Ingram, Eds., Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  124. B. Bernstein, “Language and roles,” in Language Acquisition: Models and Methods, R. Huxley and E. Ingram, Eds., pp. 220–256, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  125. M. H. Kosmidis, K. Tsapkini, V. Folia, C. H. Vlahou, and G. Kiosseoglou, “Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 818–827, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. F. Ostrosky-Solís, A. Ardila, and M. Rosselli, “NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 413–433, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. F. Ostrosky-Solís, M. A. García, and M. Pérez, “Can learning to read and write change the brain organization? An electrophysiological study,” International Journal of Psychology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. K. M. Petersson, A. Reis, and M. Ingvar, “Cognitive processing in literate and illiterate subjects: a review of some recent behavioral and functional neuroimaging data,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 251–267, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. A. Reis and A. Castro-Caldas, “Illiteracy: a cause for biased cognitive development,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 444–450, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. D. Lantz, “A cross–cultural comparison of communication abilities: Some effects of age, schooling and culture,” International Journal of Psychology, vol. 14, no. 1–4, pp. 171–183, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  131. Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, “Culture and cognitive development,” in Handbook of Child Psychology: History, Theories and Methods, P. Mussen, Ed., Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  132. A. Castro-Caldas, K. M. Peterson, A. Reis, S. Askelof, and M. Ingvar, “Differences in inter-hemispheric interactions related to literacy, assessed by PET,” Neurology, vol. 50, article A43, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  133. K. G. Noble, M. E. Wolmetz, L. G. Ochs, M. J. Farah, and B. D. McCandliss, “Brain-behavior relationships in reading acquisition are modulated by socioeconomic factors,” Developmental Science, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 642–654, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. R. D. S. Raizada, T. L. Richards, A. Meltzoff, and P. K. Kuhl, “Socioeconomic status predicts hemispheric specialisation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in young children,” NeuroImage, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 1392–1401, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. K. Byers-Heinlein and C. T. Fennell, “Perceptual narrowing in the context of increased variation: insights from bilingual infants,” Developmental Psychobiology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 274–291, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. G. Luk, E. Bialystok, F. I. M. Craik, and C. L. Grady, “Lifelong bilingualism maintains white matter integrity in older adults,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 46, pp. 16808–16813, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. E. Bialystok, F. I. M. Craik, and M. Freedman, “Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 459–464, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. J. Salvatierra and M. Rosselli, “The effect of bilingualism and age on inhibitory control,” International Journal of Bilingualism, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 26–37, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. S. G. Mohades, E. Struys, P. van Schuerbeek, K. Mondt, P. van de Craen, and R. Luypaert, “DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children,” Brain Research, vol. 1435, pp. 72–80, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. A. Mechelli, J. T. Crinion, U. Noppeney et al., “Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain,” Nature, vol. 431, article 757, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. D. Head, R. L. Buckner, J. S. Shimony et al., “Differential vulnerability of anterior white matter in non-demented aging with minimal acceleration in dementia of the Alzheimer type: evidence from diffusion tensor imaging,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 410–423, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. T. A. Salthouse, “The processing speed theory of adult age differences in cognition,” Psychological Review, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 403–428, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. S. W. Davis, N. A. Dennis, S. M. Daselaar, M. S. Fleck, and R. Cabeza, “Que PASA? The posterior-anterior shift in aging,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1201–1209, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. R. A. Charlton, S. Landau, F. Schiavone et al., “A structural equation modeling investigation of age-related variance in executive function and DTI measured white matter damage,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1555, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. S. J. Crowe and T. J. Prescott, “Continuity and change in the development of category structure: insights from the semantic fluency task,” International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 467–479, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. V. A. Filippetti and R. F. Allegri, “Verbal fluency in Spanish-speaking children: analysis model according to task type, clustering, and switching strategies and performance over time,” Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 413–436, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. I. M. Tallberg, E. Ivachova, K. Jones Tinghag, and P. Östberg, “Swedish norms for word fluency tests: FAS, animals and verbs,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 479–485, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. A. S. Chan and M. W. Poon, “Performance of 7- to 95-year-old individuals in a Chinese version of the category fluency test,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 525–533, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. M. S. Albert, H. S. Heller, and W. Milberg, “Changes in naming ability with age,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 173–178, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. S. Auriacombe, C. Fabrigoule, S. Lafont, H. Amieva, H. Jacqmin-Gadda, and J. F. Dartigues, “Letter and category fluency in normal elderly participants: a population-based study,” Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 98–108, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. K. I. Bolla, S. Gray, S. M. Resnick, R. Galante, and C. Kawas, “Category and letter fluency in highly educated older adults,” Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 330–338, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. N. S. Foldi, N. Helm-Estabrooks, J. Redfield, and D. G. Nickel, “Perseveration in normal aging: a comparison of perseveration rates on design fluency and verbal generative tasks,” Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 268–280, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. J. K. Gordon and N. K. Kindred, “Word retrieval in ageing: an exploration of the task constraint hypothesis,” Aphasiology, vol. 25, no. 6-7, pp. 774–788, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. G. Kavé, “Phonemic fluency, semantic fluency, and difference scores: normative data for adult Hebrew speakers,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 690–699, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. M. S. Khalil, “Preliminary Arabic normative data of neuropsychological tests: the verbal and design fluency,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1028–1035, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. S. Mejia, D. Pineda, L. M. Alvarez, and A. Ardila, “Individual differences in memory and executive function abilities during normal aging,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 95, no. 3-4, pp. 271–284, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. H. Sauzéon, C. Raboutet, J. Rodrigues et al., “Verbal knowledge as a compensation determinant of adult age differences in verbal fluency tasks over time,” Journal of Adult Development, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 144–154, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. S.-H. Ryu, K. W. Kim, S. Kim et al., “Normative study of the category fluency test (CFT) from nationwide data on community-dwelling elderly in Korea,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 305–309, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. J. Stokholm, K. Jørgensen, and A. Vogel, “Performances on five verbal fluency tests in a healthy, elderly Danish sample,” Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 22–33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. A. K. Troyer, M. Moscovitch, and G. Winocur, “Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: evidence from younger and older healthy adults,” Neuropsychology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 138–146, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. M. Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. Vesneski, and D. W. R. Jones, “Aging and word-finding: a comparison of spontaneous and constrained naming tests,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 479–493, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. N. S. Wecker, J. H. Kramer, B. J. Hallam, and D. C. Delis, “Mental flexibility: age effects on switching,” Neuropsychology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 345–352, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus