Table 5: Mean and (standard deviations) for different verbal fluency tests by age group.

ReferenceLanguageAge group and taskAge groups

Albert et al. [149]80EnglishAge group30–3950–5960–6970–80
FAS49.2 (9.11)46.1 (9.4)45.3 (11.6)39.7 (10.4)

Auriacombe et al. [150]1133FrenchAge group ≤7475–7980–84 ≥85
Letter (L & P)19.8 (7.7)17.8 (7.5)15.2 (6.5)15 (6.1)
Color & Animals31.4 (7.6)29.2 (6.9)26.6 (6.6)23.9 (6.2)

Bolla et al. [151]478EnglishAge group55–6970–7980–94
Animals19.6 (4.1)18.8 (4.7)18.3 (4.7)
Fruits15.4 (3.2)15.1 (3.5)13.5 (3.3)
Vegetables14.2 (3.1)14.2 (3.4)12.7 (3.5)
FAS48.4 (11.7)47.8 (13.2)44.8 (12.9)

Chan and Poon [148]226ChineseAge groups19–3031–4041–5051–6061–7071–80
Animals19.6 (4.0)16.8 (4.6)16.3 (3.4)15.5 (5.4)15.8 (4.3)13.6 (3.7)
Transportation14.1 (3.3)13.0 (3.0)12.8 (3.6)9.4 (3.3)10.3 (3.5)9.1 (3.2)

Foldi et al. [152]73EnglishAge groups18–3940–5960–7475–88
Animals21.4 (3.7)21.1 (5.0)17.2 (5.1)15.1 (4.9)
Letter M13.3 (3.3)13.1 (3.5)10.7 (3.5)10.8 (4.7)

Gordon and Kindred [153]56EnglishAge groups30–4950–6970–90
Animals27.824.521.5
FAS16.715.513.6

Kavé [154]369HebrewAge groups18–3031–5051–7071–85
Bet13.5 (3.7)11.8 (3.6)11.1 (3.5)9.5 (2.9)
Gimel14.4 (3.5)12.9 (3.5)12.1 (3.1)10.4 (3.6)
Shin15.2 (4.0)14.2 (3.9)13.3 (3.7)10.9 (3.2)
Animals24.8 (5.2)22.8 (5.5)19.8 (5.1)17.9 (4.7)
Fruits and vegetables23.2 (4.5)23.1 (4.6)21.1 (4.3)18.0 (4.4)
Vehicles15.1 (3.4)15.4 (3.9)13.6 (3.6)11.7 (3.0)

Khalil [155]215ArabicAge groups17–2930–3940–59
Phonemic WRG29.2 (5.0)29.8 (4.7)24.1 (3.0)
Animals16.6 (3.3)17.8 (2.5)14.9 (3.4)

Mejia et al. [156]60SpanishAge groups55–7071–85
FAS10.2 (8.3)8.0 (2.9)
Animals and fruits14.2 (2.2)11.6 (3.0)

Sauzéon et al. [157]40FrenchAge groups18–2365–75
Phonemic FS29.6 (3.77)29.2 (4.27)
Supermarket22.6 (2.92)24.3 (2.82)

Ryu et al. [158]3025KoreanAge60–6970–7474–7980–84≥85
13.6 (4.0)13.3 (3.9)12.9 (3.8)12.4 (3.7)11.9 (3.7)

Stokholm et al. [159]100DanishAge group60–87
Animals21.3 (4.8)
Supermarket23.6 (5.8)
S-words13.7 (5.8)
Action word13.3 (4.7)

Troyer et al. [160]95EnglishAge group18–3560–89
FAS41.9 (11.5)41.3 (10.9)
Animals21.8 (5.7)17.8 (4.2)

Schmitter-Edgecombe et al. [161]78EnglishAge group18–2258–7475–93
FAS43.3 (11.4)41.4 (9.8)37.4 (8.5)
Animals20.2 (3.7)21.1 (4.8)17.1 (4.7)

Tallberg et al. [147]165SwedishAge group16–2930–6465–89
FAS40.0 (10.7)45.7 (11.7)40.9 (12.6)
Animals24.7 (4.6)26.0 (5.9)19.2 (5.7)

Wecker et al. [162]719EnglishAge group20–2930–3940–4950–5960–6970–7980–89
Animals20.0 (4.5)20.5 (4.2)19.8 (4.3)18.3 (4.3)17.1 (4.2)16.3 (3.8)14.6 (3.8)