Sex Differences and the Impact of Chronic Stress and Recovery on Instrumental Learning
It shows ten-day avoidance rates for transfer males (a) and females (b) and AV-only males (c) and females (d) for control (gray), stressed (black), and recovered (gold) animals. 42-day restraint stress resulted in significant reductions in avoidance rate acquisition and maintenance for transfer females and for maintenance only for AV-only females. However, all recovered animals had avoidance % at rates equal to controls. Day-by-day comparisons for significant differences between control and stressed animals are denoted with () or (), while significant differences between stressed and recovered days are denoted by #() or ##(). Asterisks indicate a significant difference between control and restrained females. There were no significant differences between restrained and recovered females for AV-only.