New Journal of Science / 2014 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

Candida Immunity

Figure 3

Initiation of innate and adaptive immunity during C. albicans infection. Infection of epithelial cells by C. albicans results in the production of cytokines (blue) and chemokines (red) which recruit and activate various other immune cells. IL-8 recruits circulating neutrophils (PMNs) that are in turn activated by a variety of cytokines including GM-CSF, G-CSF, and IL-1 family members. Activated PMNs produce TNF among other cytokines, which affect epithelial gene transcription. TGF is produced constitutively by epithelial cells and will act with IL-1 and IL-6 to induce T cell differentiation to the Th17 phenotype. Mucosal homing cells including Th17 T cells and activating dendritic cells will also be recruited by the increased expression of CCL20 and -defensin 2, acting through the CCR6 receptor. This will lead to the presence of active Th17 T cells at the site of infection. CCL20 and -defensin 2 will also recruit in Treg cells which will act to suppress and control the Th17 response. Figure adapted from [262].

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