Table of Contents
New Journal of Science
Volume 2014, Article ID 390618, 27 pages
Review Article

Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

Edinburgh Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Group, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland

Received 27 April 2014; Accepted 23 July 2014; Published 17 September 2014

Academic Editor: Heidi Fiegl

Copyright © 2014 J. M. Dixon. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Around 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive and hence their development is highly dependent on estradiol. While the invention of endocrine therapies has revolusioned the treatment of the disease, resistance to therapy eventually occurs in a large number of patients. This paper seeks to illustrate and discuss the complexity and heterogeneity of the mechanisms which underlie resistance and the approaches proposed to combat them. It will also focus on the use and development of methods for predicting which patients are likely to develop resistance.