Table of Contents
New Journal of Science
Volume 2014, Article ID 674684, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/674684
Review Article

Zingiber officinale (Ginger): A Future Outlook on Its Potential in Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes and Prediabetic States

Discipline of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

Received 3 March 2014; Revised 20 June 2014; Accepted 25 June 2014; Published 23 September 2014

Academic Editor: Eric Hajduch

Copyright © 2014 Basil D. Roufogalis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetes is reaching pandemic levels in both developing and developed countries and requires safe, affordable, and effective therapies. This report summarises work in our laboratory on the effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and its components in diabetes models and provides a future outlook on the potential for their use in type 2 diabetes. A high fat diet rat model showed modulation of body weight gain and normalisation of glucose and lipid metabolic disturbances, with reduction of insulin resistance in a high fat-high carbohydrate diet model. Ginger extract inhibits enhanced NF-κB in liver of high fat-fed rats through inhibition of the IKK/IκBα/NF-κB classical pathway. The major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol inhibited elevated cytokines in inflamed HuH7 cells through suppression of COX2 expression and protection against the ROS pathway. Ginger extract and gingerols enhanced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes, by enhancing translocation of GLUT4 to the surface membrane and activation of AMPKα1 through a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase pathway. (S)-[6]-Gingerol also enhanced energy metabolism through marked increment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) gene expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Future studies will require well designed clinical trials on ginger preparations of defined chemical composition.