New Journal of Science / 2014 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

Regulation of EPCs: The Gateway to Blood Vessel Formation

Figure 3

Transcriptional regulation of circulating EPC number. EPC numbers in the circulation are tightly regulated. (a) The reduced numbers of EPCs present in patients with CVD and T2DM can be ameliorated by current treatments. Statin treatment in CAD patients leads to reduced apoptosis via accumulation of phosphorylated FOXO4 leading to enhanced EPC number (Figure 2(a)). Agonists targeting PPARγ are used to treat T2DM (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) and CVD (cilostazol and telmisartan). Systemic activation of PPARγ culminates in enhancement of EPCs in the circulation of patients. (b) The proapoptotic role of FOXO1 and FOXO3a (Figure 2(b)) contributes to reduced circulating EPCs in patients with hyperglycemia. Moreover, hyperglycemia correlates with increased activity in Ets resulting in reduced EPCs. In addition, mice deficient in Klf10 and ld1 have a documented reduction in EPCs in the periphery.

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