Table of Contents
New Journal of Science
Volume 2016, Article ID 6358315, 9 pages
Research Article

Xenic Cultivation and Genotyping of Pathogenic Free-Living Amoeba from Public Water Supply Sources in Uganda

1Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Animal Resources (WAAR), School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources (SVAR), College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
2Department of Biomolecular Resources and Biolab Sciences, School of Biosecurity, Biotechnical and Laboratory Sciences (SBLS), College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
3Research Unit on AIDS, Medical Research Council (MRC)/Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda
4Department of Biochemistry and Sports Science (BSS), College of Natural Sciences (CONAS), Kampala, Uganda

Received 17 May 2016; Accepted 18 July 2016

Academic Editor: Xinhua Shu

Copyright © 2016 Celsus Sente et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Studies on waterborne parasites from natural environment and domestic water sources in Uganda are very scarce and unpublished. Water dwelling free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Naegleria are often responsible for causing morbidities and mortalities in individuals with recent contact with contaminated water, but their presence in Uganda’s public water supply sources is not known. We cultivated and genotyped FLA from natural and domestic water from Queen Elizabeth Protected Area (QEPA) and Kampala (KLA). The cultivated parasites were observed microscopically and recorded. The overall prevalence of FLA in QEPA (Acanthamoeba spp., 35%; Hartmannella spp., 18.9%; Naegleria spp., 13.5%) and KLA (Acanthamoeba spp., 28.3%; Naegleria spp., 16.6%; Hartmannella spp., 23.1%) were not significantly different. The highest prevalence across water sources in QEPA and KLA was observed for Acanthamoeba spp., followed by Hartmannella spp., and Naegleria spp. Overall FLA mean (±SE) and mean (±SE) across water sources were highest for Acanthamoeba spp. compared to other FLA but were not statistically significant ( > 0.05). Analysis of the FLA sequences produced 1 Cercomonas, 1 Nuclearia, 1 Bodomorpha, 2 Hartmannella, 5 Echinamoeba, and 7 Acanthamoeba partial sequences, indicating a muliplicity of water contaminants that need to be controlled by proper water treatment.