Table of Contents
New Journal of Science
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6358315, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6358315
Research Article

Xenic Cultivation and Genotyping of Pathogenic Free-Living Amoeba from Public Water Supply Sources in Uganda

1Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Animal Resources (WAAR), School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources (SVAR), College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
2Department of Biomolecular Resources and Biolab Sciences, School of Biosecurity, Biotechnical and Laboratory Sciences (SBLS), College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
3Research Unit on AIDS, Medical Research Council (MRC)/Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda
4Department of Biochemistry and Sports Science (BSS), College of Natural Sciences (CONAS), Kampala, Uganda

Received 17 May 2016; Accepted 18 July 2016

Academic Editor: Xinhua Shu

Copyright © 2016 Celsus Sente et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. J. Martinez and G. S. Visvesvara, “Free-living, amphizoic and opportunistic amebas,” Brain Pathology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 583–598, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. WHO, Combating Waterborne Disease at the Household Level/International Network to Promote Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.
  3. CDC, Domestic Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Epidemiology, Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2015, http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/waterborne/domestic.html.
  4. H. Abedkhojasteh, M. Niyyati, F. Rahimi, M. Hei-Dari, S. Farnia, and M. Rezaeian, “First report of Hartmannella keratitis in a cosmetic soft contact lens wearer in Iran,” Iranian Journal of Parasitology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 481–485, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Sente, J. Erume, I. Naigaga et al., “Occurrence and genetic characterisation of Acanthamoeba spp. from environmental and domestic water sources in Queen Elizabeth Protected Area, Uganda,” Parasites & Vectors, vol. 9, article 127, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. J. De Jonckheere, “Naegleria australiensis sp. nov., another pathogenic Naegleria from water,” Protistologica, vol. 17, pp. 423–429, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  7. J. F. De Jonckheere, “Isoenzyme patterns of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Naegleria spp. using agarose isoelectric focusing,” Annales de Microbiologie, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 319–342, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. F. De Jonckheere, “A century of research on the amoeboflagellate genus Naegleria,” Acta Protozoologica, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 309–342, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. CDC, “Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with contact lenses—United States,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 35, no. 25, pp. 405–408, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  10. V. A. Dunand, S. M. Hammer, R. Rossi et al., “Parasitic sinusitis and otitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: report of five cases and review,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 267–272, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Amir, Acanthamoeba castellanii as a Host and Model to Study Bacterial Virulence, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Huddinge, Sweden, 2009.
  12. R. Dey, P. S. Hoffman, and I. J. Glomski, “Germination and amplification of anthrax spores by soil-dwelling amoebas,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 78, no. 22, pp. 8075–8081, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Solgi, M. Niyyati, A. Haghighi, and E. N. Mojarad, “Occurrence of thermotolerant Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria spp. in hot springs of Ardebil Province, Northwest Iran,” Iranian Journal of Parasitology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 47–52, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Uganda: Cholera, WHO Regional Office for Africa, 2012, http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/dpc/epidemic-a-pandemic-alert-and-response/3601-uganda-cholera-situation-as-of-31-march-2012.html
  15. G. Ojore, Uganda: 2,000 Children Die of Diarrhoea in Africa Daily-WaterAid, New Vision Publishing, Kampala, Uganda, 2012.
  16. Uganda rural water services. Inadequate quantity, low quality, satisfied users, IRC, 2014, http://www.ircwash.org/news/uganda-rural-water-services-inadequate-quantity-low-quality-satisfied-users
  17. WHO Regional Office for Africa, Emergencies Preparedness, and Response to Typhoid Fever, Uganda, 2015, http://www.who.int/csr/don/17-march-2015-uganda/en/.
  18. Naegleria Infection, Medscape Drugs & Diseases, 2015, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/223910-overview#a5
  19. G. S. Visvesvara, H. Moura, and F. L. Schuster, “Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. J. Stockman, C. J. Wright, G. S. Visvesvara, B. S. Fields, and M. J. Beach, “Prevalence of Acanthamoeba spp. and other free-living amoebae in household water, Ohio, USA—1990–1992,” Parasitology Research, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 621–627, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. S. Visvesvara, “Amebic meningoencephalitides and keratitis: challenges in diagnosis and treatment,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 590–594, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. Crum-Cianflone, Acanthamoeba, Naval Medical Center at San Diego, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2015.
  23. F. Marciano-Cabral and G. A. Cabral, “Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of disease in humans,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 273–307, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Lorenzo-Morales, E. Martínez-Carretero, N. Batista et al., “Early diagnosis of amoebic keratitis due to a mixed infection with Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella,” Parasitology Research, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 167–169, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Z. Szénási, T. Endo, K. Yagita, and E. Nagy, “Isolation, identification and increasing importance of ‘free-living’ amoebae causing human disease,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Trabelsi, F. Dendana, A. Sellami et al., “Pathogenic free-living amoebae: epidemiology and clinical review,” Pathologie Biologie, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 399–405, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Uganda Bureau of Statistics, Estimated Population of Kampala in 2002, 2010 & 2011, Uganda Bureau of Statistics, 2014.
  28. F. L. Schuster and G. S. Visvesvara, “Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1001–1027, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Pélandakis and P. Pernin, “Use of multiplex PCR and PCR restriction enzyme analysis for detection and exploration of the variability in the free-living amoeba Naegleria in the environment,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 2061–2065, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. M. Schroeder, G. C. Booton, J. Hay et al., “Use of subgenic 18S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing for genus and genotype identification of Acanthamoebae from humans with keratitis and from sewage sludge,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1903–1911, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. C. Booton, D. J. Kelly, Y.-W. Chu et al., “18S ribosomal DNA typing and tracking of Acanthamoeba species isolates from corneal scrape specimens, contact lenses, lens cases, and home water supplies of Acanthamoeba keratitis patients in Hong Kong,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1621–1625, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Tamura, G. Stecher, D. Peterson, A. Filipski, and S. Kumar, “MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2725–2729, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Bonilla-Lemus, A. S. Caballero Villegas, J. Carmona Jiménez, and A. Lugo Vázquez, “Occurrence of free-living amoebae in streams of the Mexico Basin,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 145, supplement, pp. S28–S33, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Ghadar-Ghadr, K. Solhjoo, M. Norouz-Nejad, R. Rohi, and S. Zia-Jahromi, “Isolation and identification of free living amoeba (Naegleria and Acanthamoeba) in Shiraz water resources by morphological criteria,” Pars of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 33–42, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  35. S. Ghadar-Ghadr, K. Solhjoo, M. Norouz-Nejad, R. Rohi, and S. Zia-Jahromi, “Isolation and identification of free living amoeba (Naegleria and Acanthamoeba) in Shiraz water resources by morphological criteria,” Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 26–33, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Rodriguez-Zaragoza, E. Mayzlish, and Y. Steinberger, “Vertical distribution of the free-living amoeba population in soil under desert shrubs in the Negev Desert, Israel,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 2053–2060, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Pruden, J. Falkinham, K. Williams, H. Wang, K. Martins, and W. Rhoads, “Relationship between biodegradable organic matter and pathogen concentrations in premise plumbing,” Water Research Foundation, pp. 58–90, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  38. A. Rożej, A. Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, B. Kowalska, and D. Kowalski, “Structure and microbial diversity of biofilms on different pipe materials of a model drinking water distribution systems,” World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 37–47, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. H. Vodkin, D. K. Howe, G. S. Visvesvara, and G. L. McLaughlin, “Identification of Acanthamoeba at the generic and specific levels using the polymerase chain reaction,” The Journal of Protozoology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 378–385, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Crary, Genetic Variability and Its Relationship to Acanthamoeba Pathogenesis, Molecular Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2012.
  41. M. S. Torno Jr., R. Babapour, A. Gurevitch, and M. D. Witt, “Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 42, no. 2, part 2, pp. 351–354, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. F. De Jonckheere and S. Brown, “There is no evidence that the free-living ameba Hartmannella is a human parasite,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 773, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. W. Woodburn, L. Muhangi, S. Hillier et al., “Risk factors for helminth, malaria, and HIV infection in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 3, no. 6, article e473, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Onichandran, T. Kumar, C. C. Salibay et al., “Waterborne parasites: a current status from the Philippines,” Parasites & Vectors, vol. 7, no. 1, article 244, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Kumar, S. Onichandran, Y. A. L. Lim et al., “Comparative study on waterborne parasites between Malaysia and Thailand: a new insight,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 682–689, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. Carmena, Waterborne Transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia: Detection, Surveillance and Implications for Public Health, Faculty of Medicine IC, London, UK, 2010.