Table 3: Summary of outcome measures.

Outcome MeasureControl ( )Exercise ( )Effect Size value
BeforeAfterBeforeAfter

Cognitive measures:
Attention (%)58.9 ± 8.860.5 ± 10.178.2 ± 17.276.6 ± 16.8.00.87
Processing Speed (ms)463.3 ± 23.5532.3 ± 78.8410.9 ± 49.0381.4 ± 52.5.55.02
Working Memory (%)62.7 ± 3.056.9 ± 10.868.7 ± 12.365.6 ± 10.2.08.45
Episodic Memory (%)71.3 ± 4.466.2 ± 7.281.1 ± 9.779.3 ± 10.7.08.47
Executive function ( of errors)20.2 ± 6.415.6 ± 8.89.2 ± 2.38.2 ± 2.2.01.81
Augmentation Index (%)−9.8 ± 7.7−8.2 ± 8.8−6.2 ± 5.7−8.8 ± 12.6.22.20
Aortic Pulse Pressure (mmHg)23.2 ± 4.125.8 ± 1.926.0 ± 5.126.2 ± 4.4.00.97
Aortic SBP (mmHg) 92.4 ± 4.596.8 ± 8.8799.0 ± 8.694.8 ± 8.2.39.07
Aortic DBP (mmHg)69.2 ± 6.571.0 ± 9.673.0 ± 4.668.4 ± 5.1.25.17
Brachial HR (beats/min)70.4 ± 14.970.0 ± 10.374.0 ± 10.363.8 ± 6.1.23.19
Brachial SBP (mmHg)109.3 ± 4.6114.0 ± 7.9118.2 ± 12.8112.6 ± 12.1.25.17
Brachial DBP (mmHg)68.8 ± 6.170.1 ± 9.371.8 ± 4.267.4 ± 5.2.21.21
VO2max (mL/kg−1/min−1)35.1 ± 6.3 35.2 ± 7.833.8 ± 7.337.2 ± 7.1.27.16

Data reported as mean standard deviation.
SBP: Systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; HR: heart rate.