Table of Contents
Physiology Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 510460, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/510460
Research Article

Relationship between Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Visual Acuity in Residents of Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma PMB 14, Nigeria
2Department of Health Promotion and Education, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Received 28 June 2014; Revised 6 August 2014; Accepted 6 August 2014; Published 19 August 2014

Academic Editor: Gary Lopaschuk

Copyright © 2014 I. O. Ernest-Nwoke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. J. Friedrich, “Epidemic of obesity expands its spread to developing countries,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 11, pp. 1382–1386, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. Friedman and E. L. Fanning, “Overweight and obesity: an overview of prevalence, clinical impact, and economic impact,” Disease Management, vol. 7, supplement 1, pp. S1–S6, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. W. Haslam and W. P. T. James, “Obesity,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9492, pp. 1197–1209, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. O. Hill, V. Catenacci, and H. R. Wyatt, “Obesity: overview of an epidemic,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. H. Eckel, R. M. Krauss, and AHA Nutrition Committee, “American Heart Association call to action: obesity as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 21, pp. 2099–2100, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. M. Grundy, “Metabolic complications of obesity,” Endocrine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 155–165, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. J. Lawrence and P. G. Kopelman, “Medical consequences of obesity,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 296–302, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. X. Pi-Sunyer, “Medical hazards of obesity,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 655–660, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. I. Ulasi, C. K. Ijoma, and O. D. Onodugo, “A community-based study of hypertension and cardio-metabolic syndrome in semi-urban and rural communities in Nigeria,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 10, article 71, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. D. Cressman and R. W. Gifford Jr., “Hypertension and stroke,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 521–527, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. S. Post, M. N. Hill, C. R. Dennison, J. L. Weiss, G. Gerstenblith, and R. S. Blumenthal, “High prevalence of target organ damage in young, African American Inner-City men with hypertension,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 24–30, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Khakurel, R. K. Agrawal, and R. Hada, “Pattern of end stage renal disease in a tertiary care center,” Journal of the Nepal Medical Association, vol. 48, no. 174, pp. 126–130, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Cuspidi, L. Lonati, L. Sampieri et al., “Prevalence of target organ damage in treated hypertensive patients: different impact of clinic and ambulatory blood pressure control,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 803–809, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. Neal, S. MacMahon, N. Chapman et al., “Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials,” The Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9246, pp. 1955–1964, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Bergman, H. Nilsson-Ehle, and J. Sjöstrand, “Ocular changes, risk markers for eye disorders and effects of cataract surgery in elderly people: a study of an urban Swedish population followed from 70 to 97 years of age,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 166–174, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Rodriguez-Cruz and L. M. Ettinger, Hypertension, eMedicine Pediatrics: Cardiac Disease and Critical Care Medicin, Medscape, 2010.
  17. J. M. Dionne, C. L. Abitbol, and J. T. Flynn, “Hypertension in infancy: diagnosis, management and outcome,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 17–32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. D. Fisher and G. H. Williams, “Hypertensive vascular disease,” in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, D. L. Kasper, E. Braunwald, A. S. Fauci et al., Eds., pp. 1463–1481, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 16th edition, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  19. E. O'Brien, D. G. Beevers, and G. Y. H. Lip, ABC of Hypertension, BMJ Books, London, UK, 2007.
  20. P. Gibson, “Hypertension and pregnancy,” eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medscape, June 2009.
  21. F. E. Hirai, J. M. Tielsch, B. E. K. Klein, and R. Klein, “Ten-year change in vision-related quality of life in type 1 diabetes: wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 353–358, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. C. Jones, J. E. Crews, and M. L. Danielson, “Health risk profile for older adults with blindness: an application of the international classification of functioning, disability, and health framework,” Ophthalmic Epidemiology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 400–410, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Collerton, K. Davies, C. Jagger et al., “Health and disease in 85 year olds: baseline findings from the Newcastle 85+ cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 339, Article ID b4904, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. R. Evans, A. E. Fletcher, R. P. L. Wormald et al., “Prevalence of visual impairment in people aged 75 years and older in Britain: results from the MRC trial of assessment and management of older people in the community,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 86, no. 7, pp. 795–800, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. J. Sinclair, A. J. Bayer, A. J. Girling, and K. W. Woodhouse, “Older adults, diabetes mellitus and visual acuity: a community-based case-control study,” Age and Ageing, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 335–339, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. O. Obabori, R. Ebosele, and S. K. Mokidi, “Decay problems in cities: renewal options,” JABS, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 144–153, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  27. WHO, “Obesity preventive and managing the global epidemiology,” Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. C. Smith and F. A. Maure, Community Health Nursing Theory Practices, Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1995.
  29. V. Darling and M. Thorpe, Ophthalmic Nursing, Fakenhan Press, London, UK, 1975.
  30. P. l. Garland, Ophthalmic Nursing, Faber and Faber, London, UK, 1995.
  31. World Health Assembly (WHA), “The resolution of world health assembly on the elimination of avoidable blindness,” Community Eye Health, vol. 16, pp. 17–18, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  32. G. N. Dennis and D. Paul, “School vision screening programme in enugu, Nigeria: assessment of referral criteria for error of refraction,” Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology, pp. 34–40, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  33. P. F. Jacques, S. M. Moeller, S. E. Hankinson et al., “Weight status, abdominal adiposity, diabetes, and early age-related lens opacities,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 400–405, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. E. K. Klein, R. Klein, K. E. Lee, and S. C. Jensen, “Measures of obesity and age-related eye diseases,” Ophthalmic Epidemiology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 251–262, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. M. Kuang, S. Y. Tsai, W. M. Hsu, C. Y. Cheng, J. H. Liu, and P. Chou, “Body mass index and age-related cataract: the Shihpai eye study,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 123, no. 8, pp. 1109–1114, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. A. Schaumberg, W. G. Christen, S. E. Hankinson, and R. J. Glynn, “Body mass index and the incidence of visually significant age-related maculopathy in men,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 9, pp. 1259–1265, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. M. Seddon, J. Cote, N. Davis, and B. Rosner, “Progression of age-related macular degeneration: association with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 785–792, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. A. van Leiden, J. M. Dekker, A. C. Moll et al., “Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 245–251, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. R. Schoenfeld, M. C. Leske, and S.-Y. Wu, “Recent epidemiologic studies on nutrition and cataract in India, Italy and the United States,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 521–526, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. A. Zang and E. L. Wynder, “The association between body mass index and the relative frequencies of diseases in a sample of hospitalized patients,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 247–261, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. C. Leske, A. M. S. Connell, S. Y. Wu, L. G. Hyman, and A. P. Schachat, “Risk factors for open-angle glaucoma: the Barbados eye study,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 918–924, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. Gasser, D. Stümpfig, A. Schötzau, U. Ackermann-Liebrich, and J. Flammer, “Body mass index in glaucoma,” Journal of Glaucoma, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 8–11, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Momeni-Moghaddam, J. Kundart, M. Ehsani, and A. Abdeh-Kykha, “Body mass index and binocular vision skills,” Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 331–334, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. O. Ozor, I. O. Ernest-Nwoke, and M. O. Oyakhire, “Association between health status and visual functioning: a community based study,” International Journal of Community Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  45. A. J. Lee, J. J. Wang, A. Kifley, and P. Mitchell, “Open-angle glaucoma and cardiovascular mortality: the blue mountains eye study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1069–1076, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Y. Wu, B. Nemesure, A. Hennis, A. P. Schachat, L. Hyman, and M. C. Leske, “Open-angle glaucoma and mortality: the Barbados eye studies,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 365–370, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. C. Chauhan, F. S. Mikelberg, A. G. Balaszi, R. P. LeBlanc, M. R. Lesk, and G. E. Trope, “Canadian glaucoma study: 2. Risk factors for the progression of open-angle glaucoma,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 126, no. 8, pp. 1030–1036, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Flammer, K. Konieczka, R. M. Bruno, A. Virdis, A. J. Flammer, and S. Taddei, “The eye and the heart,” European Heart Journal, vol. 34, no. 17, pp. 1270–1278, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus